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Crime in the Coal Industry: Implications for Green Criminology

Amanda J.Fairchild*

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Innovative Therapeutics, Health Futures Institute, Murdoch University, Australia

*Corresponding Author:
Amanda J.Fairchild
Centre for Molecular Medicine and Innovative Therapeutics, Health Futures Institute, Murdoch University, Australia

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In this article we apply a developmental psychology analysis to sex offender laws and policies for adolescents to examine how such laws and policies, derived primarily from downward extension of adult criminal predatory sexual offender statutes and policies, serve the early identification of predators, constraint of such behavior, and/or engagement in rehabilitation. This focus is framed within advances in the past 20 years in the understanding of neurobiology and the social development of adolescence and in the understanding of the makeup of the population potentially coming under juvenile sex offender regulations. We find a significant mismatch between the prevailing laws and policies and the scientific knowledge about adolescents' development and the intended service to public safety. We provide suggestions from the attending empirical knowledge for increasing differentiation in the understanding of and treatment of adolescents and adult


Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are presented, and different effect size measures for the models are provided. Extensions of the basic moderator and mediator models are also described. People are selfish, yet morally motivated. Morality is universal, yet culturally variable. Such apparent contradictions are dissolving as research from many disciplines converges on a few shared principles, including the importance of moral intuitions, the socially functional (rather than truth-seeking) nature of moral thinking, and the coevolution of moral minds with cultural practices and institutions that create diverse moral communities. I propose a fourth principle to guide future research: Morality is about more than harm and fairness. More research is needed on the collective and religious parts of the moral domain, such as loyalty, authority, and spiritual purity. Forgiveness and related constructs (e.g., repentance, mercy, reconciliation) are ripe for study by social and personality psychologists, including those interested in justice. Current trends in social science, law, management, philosophy, and theology suggest a need to expand existing justice frameworks to incorporate alternatives or complements to retribution, including forgiveness and related processes. In this article, we raise five challenging empirical questions about forgiveness. For each question, we briefly review representative research, raise hypotheses, and suggest specific ways in which social and personality psychologists could make distinctive contributions. Psychologists are navigating an unprecedented period of introspection about the credibility and utility of their discipline. Reform initiatives emphasize the benefits of transparency and reproducibility-related research.