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Dengue Fever: Symptoms, Mechanism and Prevention

Daniel Martinez*

Department of Animal morphology, University of Florida, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Daniel Martinez
Department of Animal morphology, University of Florida, USA
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: 07/12/2021; Accepted date: 21/12/2021; Published date: 28/12/2021

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Dengue fever is a disease carried by tropical mosquitoes caused by the dengue virus. These may include fever, headaches, vomiting, muscle and joint pain, and rash. In rare cases, the disease develops into severe dengue fever, resulting in hemorrhage, low blood plasma levels and blood plasma leaks, or dengue, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Subsequent infections in a different way increase the risk of serious complications. Numerous tests are available to confirm diagnoses that include viral antibodies or RNA. The vaccine is only recommended for people who have previously been infected or for people with a high rate of previous infections when they are nine years old. Other preventive measures include reducing mosquito breeding grounds and reducing exposure to bites. Treatment for dangerous dengue is supportive and includes administering oral or intravenous fluids for a chronic or moderate illness. Paracetamol is recommended in place of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce fever and relieve dengue pain due to increased risk of bleeding with the use of NSAIDs. Significant symptoms of dengue fever are sudden onset of fever, headache, muscle and joint pain and rash. The course of infection is divided into three stages: febrile, acute, and recovery. Dengue can sometimes affect other body systems, either alone or with the old symptoms of dengue. Decreased levels of awareness occur in severe cases, caused by inflammation of the brain by a virus or indirectly due to deformity of vital organs. Other forms of personal transmission, including sexually transmitted infections, have also been reported, but are less common. Genetic variation in dengue viruses is specific to the region, which suggests that the establishment of new habitats is rare, despite the emergence of dengue in new areas in recent decades. Severe infections are more common in children and young children, and unlike many other illnesses, they are more common in malnourished children. Although each serotype can cause a full spectrum of infections, the type of virus is a dangerous factor. Infection with one serotype is thought to produce lifelong protection in that species, but only short-term protection against the other three. When a mosquito infected with the dengue virus bites a person, the virus enters the skin along with the mosquito's saliva. It binds and enters the white blood cells, and produces inside the cells as it travels throughout the body. White blood cells respond by producing a number of signaling proteins, such as cytokines and interferons, which trigger a host of symptoms, such as fever, flu-like symptoms, and severe pain. In severe cases, the production of viruses within the body increases dramatically, and many organs can be affected. Fluid from the bloodstream leaks into the wall of the small arteries and enters the arteries as a result of capillary infiltration. As a result, the blood supply to the arteries decreases and blood pressure is so low that it cannot supply enough blood to vital organs. In addition, bone marrow dysfunction due to stromal cell infection results in reduced platelet count, which is needed for proper blood clotting; this increases the risk of bleeding, another major complication of dengue fever. Diagnosis of dengue is usually performed clinically, on the basis of reported symptoms and physical examination; this applies especially to permanent areas. However, the first disease can be difficult to distinguish from other bacterial infections. Regular spraying with organophosphate or pyrethroid pesticides, while sometimes done, is not considered effective. Reducing open water collection through environmental modification is the preferred method of control, given the concern for adverse health effects from pesticides and the greater difficulty of working with regulatory agents.

Acknowledgement

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Conflict of Interest

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