Determinants of Job Satisfaction and it’s Implication on the Performance of Public Universities Lecturers in South Sumatera | Open Access Journals

Determinants of Job Satisfaction and it’s Implication on the Performance of Public Universities Lecturers in South Sumatera

Periansya Zainuddin*

Department of Accounting, Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya, Indonesia

*Corresponding Author:
Periansya Z
Department of Accounting
Politeknik Negeri Sriwijaya
Palembang, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia
Tel: +6281373601000
E-Mail: periansya@polsri.ac.id

Received Date: February 09, 2017; Accepted Date: March 06, 2017; Published Date: March 13, 2017

Copyright: © 2017 Periansya Z. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

This research is motivated by the desire of the author that wanted to examine the performance of the public universities lecturers in South Sumatera. This study aims to investigate the effect of compensation, motivation, and commitment, both partially and simultaneously on job satisfaction and the effect of competence, motivation, organizational commitment and job satisfaction, both partially and simultaneously, and its implication on the performance of public university lecturers in South Sumatera. This study is conducted by using quantitative descriptive approach through questionnaires and explanatory approach in obtaining greater depth of the issues. This study uses a sample of 355 respondents from four public universities. In the modeling analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM) is used. The results of the independent variable significantly affect dependent variable either partially or simultaneously. Simultaneously, competence, motivation and organizational commitment are found to be positive and significant to the job satisfaction with R2=0.63 or 63%. Furthermore, competence, motivation, organizational commitment, job satisfaction also positively associated with lecturers’ performance with R2=0.83 or 83%. From each independent variable, job satisfaction in the dimension of career promotion needs to be taken care of in order to improve the performance of lecturers in South Sumatera.

Keywords

Competence, Work motivation, Organizational commitment, Job satisfaction, Performance of lecturers

Introduction

The era of globalization and openness demand educational institution to be more innovative and creative in generating superior quality and competitive human resources. The intense competition among universities at the domestic level and foreign universities can’t be avoided. Indonesia needs a good education in order to develop. In human development index at ASEAN level by UNDP, Indonesia is currently at No. 6 out of 10 ASEAN countries under the Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia and Thailand and over Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Timor Leste, Vietnam and the Philippines. The indicator development index like success of health, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living are quite behind in comparison with other countries of this region and colleges in South Sumatra in anticipation to keep up with other institutions both foreign and domestic must be competitive in term of human resources, facilities and other supporting infrastructure. One of the efforts to improve the quality of university education is to provide resources in the form of faculty teaching staff as a source of student learning. The availability of lecturers, educational staff and other support facilities will determine the success of the universities and colleges expected by public besides the role of government to provide the widest access to the public. The role of the faculty for educational success will encourage universities to make efforts to produce qualified graduates. Act No. 13 in 2005 on national education system and Law No.14 in 2005 about teachers only describes education from primary education to higher education. The issuance of Law No. 12 in 2012 about Higher education includes more specific about vision and mission of higher education in Indonesia. Higher Education Act No. 12 in 2012 article 1, paragraph 1 states:

Education is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing their potential to have spiritual power of religion, self-control, personality, intelligence, character, and skills that are important for themselves, society, and nation.

This definition has a philosophy that education is a human effort to consciously develop their potential and personality to have the spiritual power of religion, self-control, personality, intelligence, character and skills that can support somebody to acquire more value when he/she works.

Availability of teachers or lecturers who have competence is a necessity as universities attempt to improve the image and services in education. Lecturer as part of the existing resources in universities is a fundamental factor besides fund and facilities because professional lecturers can understand education correctly in order to improve the quality of graduates who will be able to compete later. Lecturers who have competence at a university will be able to maintain the quality, service and accreditation of the university or college where he works so it will be a benchmark for the success of the vision and mission that has been set.

Referring to the Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 49 Year 2014 about National Education Standards of Higher Education article 1, paragraph 1 states that National Standards of Higher Education is the standard unit includes the National Education Standards, National Standards for Research, and National Standards for Community Service. This means that central government recognizes the importance of education and this rule indicates that a lecturer should have a qualification in teaching, doing research and conducting community service.

Government Regulation (PP) No. 19 Year 2005 about National Education Standards, article 28 states that "teachers should have academic qualifications and competence as agents of learning, physical and spiritual health, and have the ability to achieve the goal of national education". Furthermore, paragraph 14 of article 1 of Law No. 12 Year 2012 about higher education states that lecturers are professional educators and scientists with the main task of transforming, develop, and disseminate science and technology through Education, Research and Community Service. This means that the learning process is a process of student interaction with faculty and learning resources in a learning environment so that the lecturer must be a man with certain qualifications in order to achieve a useful learning process for the students.

The presence of lecturers who do not have qualification according to the requirements of laws and the small number of lecturers with doctor title limit the progress of universities or colleges both in teaching, research and community service as well as in producing qualified graduates. The reluctance of lecturers to continue their education to a higher level due to several factors such as funds, foreign language, fear of leaving the family and their thinking that pursue higher degree is a waste of time.

The impact of low desire of lecturers to increase their education will affect the accreditation of the universities or colleges and can also affect the quality of education given. Lecturers must also have competency standards. Lecturer competency standards now refer to Law No.12 Year 2012, in performing their duties, they refer to the guidelines on the assessment of credit points and Joint Regulations No. 24 Year 2014 Ministry of Education and Culture and Head of State Employment about the functional position of faculty and number of credits. Based on this rule, the lecturer should fulfill the functional position and the number of credits. They can not only rely on experience as a teacher. They must achieve strictly predetermined criteria in order to produce qualified.

Efforts to increase competence by further studies are a must. The university has always encouraged lecturers to upgrade their education qualifications. It will have a positive impact for lecturers in addition to improving the competitiveness, professionalism, as well as the level of promotion either academic or functional or structural level. Higher educational qualifications with high functional position can accelerate the rate of job satisfaction of faculty and, in turn, can increase the performance of faculty.

Other factors that could affect job satisfaction of lecturers were motivation and commitment to the organization in implementing Tridarma tingggi universities as well as how much desire of the lecturers to achieve educational goals. Lecturers’motivation in performing their duties was a manifestation of the desire of the lecturer in her duties. Stefen in Osarumwense iguisi stated that motivation was the willingness to exert a persistent and high level of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual. Motivation was the willingness to exert high levels of persistent and effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual. The organizational commitment was a strong incentive from the inner of lecturer that caused expected behavior as a member of the organization like rarely absent, transfer to another organization easier, and higher productivity [1]. The high motivation and organizational commitment would affect the increasing performance of lecturers.

However, job satisfaction could be achieved if the fulfillment of needs such as salaries, rewards could be enjoyed by lecturers. Lecturers who had high motivation and organizational commitment would have positive views on the university or college and had consistency in positive behavior and worked optimally, which in turn would lead to satisfaction of lecturers.

One of the achievements of faculty performance can be seen from the presence in providing courses in the classroom, from the information obtained from the staff personnel at the four universities, the average lecturers reached 92. It meant teaching performance achievement was still lack of 8%. The staff personnel noted that this shortage caused by that the lecturers attended seminars both inside and outside the country, or sick so that the target 100% of teaching could not be met. In addition to lack discipline on the presence was there were many lecturers who had not got certification. Certification not only increased the level of welfare but also increased sense of pride of lecturer. From the data obtained the number of lecturers at the four state universities that did not yet have the certificate of professional educators was about 25% meanwhile the rest had already had theirs.

Realizing that there are sufficient number of lecturers who hadn’t got their certification and (1) the demand of universities accountability in the era of autonomy in higher education; (2) The general public needed to know how big the quality already achieved by the university or college; and (3) the impact of globalization required state universities to create competitive advantage with quality assurance orientation. Then university or college had to be able to create qualified lecturers as well as lecturer with the ability to do research.

The number of research done by lecturers was still low. In Sriwijaya University in 2012, there were 135 titles of research done by 270 lecturers, 172 titles of research done by 344 lecturers in 2013 and in 2014 as many as 319 titles of research done by 638 lecturers. Then the State Islamic University Raden Fatah data showed that as many as 40 titles of research done by 90 lecturers in 2012, in 2013 as many as 45 titles of research done by 100 lecturers and in 2014 as many as 35 titles of research done by 80 lecturers in group research. State Polytechnic of Sriwijaya in 2012, there were as many as 89 titles of research done by 178 people, in 2013 as many as 119 titles done by 250 lecturers, in 2014 as many as 22 titles of research done in groups done by as many as 44 lecturers. In Poltekes in 2012 as many as 40 titles of research done by 80 lecturers, in 2013 as many as 20 titles of research done by 40 lecturers and in 2014 as many as 20 titles done by 40 lecturers. From description illustrated above the number of lecturers doing researches were still quite low in that made the universities less well-known in research both nationally and internationally, functional hierarchy inhibited and the level of accreditation obtained could not fulfill university or college target. In addition to affecting the reputation of the university, low research conducted by university lecturers could inhibit the university or college align in the rank of leading universities both nationally and internationally.

In addition to teaching and research, lecturers’ performance is measured by how much community service activity conducted annually since this activity is one manifestation of Tri Dharma of Higher Education. In 2012 Sriwijaya University had only 89 community service activities done by 178 lecturers, 50 titles in 2013 done by 100 lecturers and 180 titles done lecturers by 360 in 2014. Furthermore, Raden Fatah State Islamic University had 66 titles done by 132 lecturers in 2012, 80 titles done by 160 lecturers in 2013, 75 titles done by 160 lecturers in 2014. State Polytechnic of Sriwijaya had 27 titles done by 70 lecturers in 2012, 46 titles done by 120 lecturers in 2013 and as many as 30 titles done by 90 lecturers in 2014. Then Poltekes Ministry of Health had 6 titles done by 16 lecturers in 2012, 17 titles done by 40 lecturers in 2013 and 15 titles done by 35 lecturers in 2014. The above data indicate tentative evidence that the state university or college lecturer has not been carrying out activities in the field of community service on a regular basis as part of Tri Dharma of Higher Education. Lecturer needed not only smart in teaching the class, but had to also give benefit to people like practical science as the result of research done by lecturer.

Lack of performance in the field of research and dedication will affect the performance of lecturers itself so that lecturers feel dissatisfied with what he had done. Robbins et al. [2] states that job satisfaction is defined as a positive feeling about the work of someone as the result of characteristic evaluation. Furthermore, Robbins et al. [2] states that the people who have jobs that are congruent with the personality should be more satisfied and less risky compare to people who have jobs that are not congruent with their personality.

Lecturers’ job satisfaction can’t be separated from the fact that they are often concerned with employee benefits than performance. Job satisfaction is an act of personal feelings and attitudes towards work, which is concerned with the interaction between themsleves and work environment. Job satisfaction has been the fulfillment of the expectations arising out of the lecturers. Improved performance of lecturers can be affected by competence of lecturers, work motivation, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. If any of these factors was lower, it could lead to bad performance that hinder the achievement of university or college goals.

This lack of work motivation and low organizational commitment has implications for educational purposes. Organizational commitment is a condition or the degree to which an employee is in favor of a particular organization and its goals, as well as the intention and maintain membership in the organization. From the description above, the researcher wanted to know whether the competence, motivation and organizational commitment effect job satisfaction and performance of lecturers.

Based on the background of above, the author was interested in conducting research entitled "Determinants of Job Satisfaction and Its Implication on Lecturer Performance in State Universities in South Sumatra.

Problems

Based on the identification and restrictions on research problems as mentioned above, the researcher formulated research problems as follows:

• Did competence effect job satisfaction of lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra?

• Did work motivation effect job satisfaction of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

• Did organizational commitment effect job satisfaction of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

• Did competence, motivation and commitment simultaneously effect job satisfaction of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

• Did competence affect the performance of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

• Did work motivation affect the performance lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

• Did organizational commitment affect the performance of lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra?

• Did job satisfaction affect the performance of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

• Did competence, motivation, organizational commitment and job satisfaction simultaneously affect the performancelecturers in state universities in South Sumatra?

Purposes

In accordance to the formulated problems, the objectives of this study were as follows:

To analyze and find empirical evidence of the effect of competence on job satisfaction of lecturers.

To analyze and find empirical evidence of the effect of work motivation on job satisfaction of lecturer.

To analyze and find empirical evidence of the effect of organizational commitment on job satisfaction of lecturers.

• To analyze and find empirical evidence of the effect of competence, motivation and organizational commitment simultaneously on job satisfaction of lecturer.

• To analyze and find empirical evidence of competence effect on the performance of faculty lecturers.

• To analyze and find empirical evidence of the effect of work motivation to lecturers’ performance.

• To analyze and find empirical evidence of the effect of organizational commitment to the performance of lecturers.

• To analyze and find empirical evidence of the effect of job satisfaction on the performance of lecturers.

• To analyze and find empirical evidence of the effect of competence, motivation, commitment and job satisfaction simultaneously on the performance of lecturers.

Theoretical Framework

Great Challenges and the competition in higher education should be anticipated as early as possible in order to create young generation that is capable of competing nationally and internationally. Universities as the place of study before plunging in the world of work must create structured and continuous learning in such a way to achieve educational goals. Achieving these objectives requires human resources as a source of learning for students. Learning resources are lecturers who are able to carry out their duties in their respective fields. Universities should be aware that competition and challenge not only in terms of facilities but how to manage the resources of the faculty. In addition to the challenges of global society, it is proper for universities and colleges in South Sumatra to be on the top 10 best universities in Indonesia. One determining factor of the success of an educational institution is in the lecturers who provide instruction to students. Lecturer as learning resource should be prepared in order to have sufficient competence in addition to factors that are not less important for increasing faculty performance like motivation of lecturers. Qualified competencies must be accompanied with motivation in order to transform knowledge to students. Lecturers should be able to produce research at national and international level. Commitment of the lecturers can hinder their performance improvement since commitment a promise to yourself in implementing the tasks. Another aspect that is also important in improving the performance of the lecturer is the job satisfaction of the lecturers such as working conditions, and wages. Working conditions need to get the most attention because lecturers devote themselves to the success of the students.

The effect of competence on job satisfaction

Paloniemi in Lotunani and Idrus [3] defines competency as increasingly being highlighted in working life. Furthermore, he believes that competence is crucial resource for individual, organization, and community. While [4] states that competence in the form of knowledge, skills and abilities and personal characteristics can affect one's satisfaction.

Spenser and Spencer [5], suggests that the individual competencies are the characters of attitude and behavior, or the ability of individuals who are relatively stable when face situations in workplace. The concept of competence raised by Spenser and Spenser is in line with the concept in this research.

Beheshtifar and Moghadam [6] states competencies are understood as measurable patterns for skills, abilities, behaviors, and other characteristics that can distinguish between high to low performances. Competence is a characteristic of the employees that contribute in improving performance and achieving organizational results.

Lecturers’ competence has powerful effect on job satisfaction because lecturers ‘competence is one important factor in higher education organization. The lecturers ‘competence becomes a benchmark for the success of the learning process. Thus, a teacher should have vision and qualified knowledge, skills and abilities.

This implication has the meaning that the active contribution of all stakeholders in the organization, such as students and employees as human resources also need to be taken into account. Management of large organizations that require great supporting competence so that the university or college will be more appreciated. Another opinion Jakson et al. [7] states that competence is the pattern of knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes and other characteristics that can be measured needed by somebody to do job or function properly.

Someone who has good workability has good attitude, behavior and relatively stable willingness formed by synergy between the characters, concepts, internal motivation, knowledge capacity when face a situation in the workplace that so that this individual will quickly be able to overcome the problems that occurred in the workplace.

Lecturers who have the competencies are the ones who have skills, attitudes and high appreciation when carrying out tasks in the job. A lecturer who has the competence will have the ability to carry out their jobs effectively. This is in line with research conducted by Dhermawan [8], Madrid [9] that competence has an effect on job satisfaction.

Lecturers who have high competence will work in accordance with the standards of certification expertise they have so that when they get, they are able to pass the standard that has been determined in accordance with the guidelines.

Competence that suit the need of lecturers ‘work will create job satisfaction, high work motivation, commitment and active participation in various activities, thus it is probable that competence effect lecturers’job satisfaction.

The effects of work motivation on job satisfaction

Motivation is the stimulation of lecturers to work better in accordance to the standards. Stimulation or encouragement can be both internal and external that provide benefits to change the attitude of lecturers in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. Ahmed [10] conducted a study on the motivation and satisfaction in relation to the performance and found that there were two factors that influence motivation, intrinsic factors-motivation and extrinsic motivation factorshygiene.

Khawaja [11] examined the impact of rewards and motivation on job satisfaction in banking sector in Saudi Arabia. The study showed that (1) the remuneration had a positive effect on motivation, (2) motivation affected job satisfaction positively (3) benefits affected job satisfaction significantly and positively.

Research result of Anantha et al. [12] showed that there was significant positive effect among compensation, motivation, promotion and job satisfaction of academic staff in universities. It showed that wages made people satisfied. Organizations should consider these variables in increasing satisfaction among employees in order to improve the behavior of individuals within organization.

Based on the above it could be concluded that motivation played an important role in achieving job satisfaction, both in the review of the expectations and of the achievements. Thus it was suspected the motivation had effect on job satisfaction.

The effect of commitment on job satisfaction

Newstrom and John [13] in Tjun [14] said that the Organizational Commitment could also be regarded as employee loyalty, a degree where an employee identified himself to the organization and wanted to continue to participate actively in the organization.

The results of this study showed that the commitment, competence and individual behavior within organization/OCB could improve performance. Unal [15] in the IWG Sarwama [16] found positive effect of commitment on Organizational Commitment Behavior.

Affective commitment, continuous commitment and normative commitment where these three commitments related to the extent to which the lecturers involved in the organization in achieving the goals. Affective commitment is closely related to the psychological condition against organizations like how loyal lecturer for the institution. Affection means lecturer will continue to improve competence since he/she loves of the institution, while the continuous commitment/ rational is part of the lecturers whether to survive or leave the organization.

High organizational commitment occurs if lecturer find hope in the form of salary and benefits, promotion and working conditions in place to direct support to implement activities as lecturer. High commitment will make lecturers work maximum.

Lecturers with high commitment would produce a performance that fit the purpose of university or college. The maximum results achieved by lecturer as a manifestation of its commitment to higher education would lead to job. Thus it was suspected that presumably commitment effected job satisfaction.

The effect of competence, work motivation and organizational commitment simultaneously on job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction is basically something individual and not tied to the other. Each individual has various level of satisfaction. The greater the expectation level is reached the more satisfied the individual will be. Lecturer in achieving the level of work satisfaction is influenced by several factors like competence, motivation and commitment.

Job satisfaction was a positive emotional attitude, enjoy and love job. As stated by Umam and Khaerul [1] job satisfaction were the elements of work that created or affected job satisfaction. Robbins et al. [2,17] dimensions that influenced job satisfaction consisting of: (1) the work itself, (2) wages (3) promotions (4) working conditions (5) coworkers and (6) fit between work and personality. Job satisfaction was the result of a wide variety of work-related attitudes and specific factors such as salary, promotion, job stability, tranquility work, opportunity to move forward, the assessment of fair labor, social relations at work, and superior treatment. Research conducted by Sasongu [18], Lotunani and Idrus [3] and Azeem [19] stated that there were influences of competence, motivation and commitment on job satisfaction.

From the opinion of the experts above and research results, it can be concluded that lecturer would feel the level of job satisfaction if six dimensions as described above could be fulfill. If any of the dimensions could not be met, then work satisfaction would reduce. Thus competence, motivation and commitment were suspected to affect job satisfaction.

The effect of competence on performance of lecturers

Competence is defined as the knowledge and skills mastered by someone and has been a part of him/her, so he/she can perform cognitive, affective and psychomotor behaviors as well as possible.

Tati [20] in his research titled Influence of Competence on Lecturers’ Performance (A Case Study in FPTK UPI) showed that competence of lecturers affected their performance. This suggested that if the competence affected the performance of lecturers in good category, the lecturers’ performance was good.

Competence was seen as lecturer characteristic to carry out activities in the areas of teaching, research and community service. While the performance of lecturers was process in carrying out the work. Thus to achieve good performance, the faculty had to achieve optimum performance by improving the education, research and dedication.

Lecturer professionalism built by mastering field of expertise which obviously required in completing the tasks and responsibilities of the job. Competences of the lecturers included pedagogic competence, professional competence, personal competence and social competence. The higher the competences, the higher the performance would be or in other words there was a close relationship between the competence and performance of lecturers.

This was in line with several studies conducted by Nur’aeni [21], Maryadi [22] which stated that there was a positive and significant impact on the performance of lecturers’ competence. Performance impacted on the competence or otherwise if it met all of the indicators. Based on the explanation above it was suspected that competence had effect on performance of lecturers.

The effect of work motivation on performance of lecturers

Research conducted by McCleland developed by David McClelland [2] and his colleagues looked at three needs: the need for achievement (nach) was the drive to achieve, for the achievement of related standards, the need for power (nPow) was the need to make others behave in a way that would not do without him and the need for affiliation (Naff) was the desire to be connected with full friendship and close interpersonal.

Work motivation could be influenced by several reasons such as awards, work atmosphere and job competencies and therefore the motivation of lecturers influenced by self-interest against the hope to achieve. Achievement of the expectations and desires of lecturers generally triggered because of the intrinsic and extrinsic trigger of the lecturers.

Research conducted by Afriani [23], Muhammad [24], stated that there was influence of work motivation on the performance of lecturers. Work motivation of lecturer caused more by the individual in perceiving their work, the grace and the mandate given to them. Lecturers who had high motivation to continue to work hard to overcome any problems and hope of achieving better working results. The study found that motivation tended to be individual. For that it was suspected that performance effected work motivation of lecturers.

The effect of organizational commitment on performance of lecturers

Griffin and Ronald [25] stated that an individual who had a high commitment was likely to see himself as a true member of the organization. Robbins et al. [2] A review of 27 studies claimed that the relationship between commitment and most powerful performance in new workers and wearker in experienced workers. The theoretical model stated that lecturers who had high commitment would less involve in resignation, even if they were not satisfied, because they had the sense of loyalty to the organization.

Results of research conducted Sadozai and Yusuf Khan [26] stated that the work ethic would moderate the relationship between organizational commitment. Furthermore, the results of research Nur’aeni [21] on the commitment of lecturers PTS in Southern Sumatra showed the commitment of lecturers were good and had influence on the performance of lecturers. Variable commitment directly contributed to the performance of lecturers.

High commitment of the lecturers could improve competitive advantage in university or college both at nasioanl and in global competition. Commitment of the lecturers and other academic community would be a force in achieving strategic plan that had they planned. Thus, the work commitments were suspected to have effect on the performance of lecturers of the state universities in South Sumatra.

The effect of job satisfaction on the performance of lecturers

Robbins et al. [2] stated that job satisfaction was a positive feeling towards work that results from the evaluation of wide range of characteristics. Job required interaction with colleagues and bosses, pursuance to the rules and policies of the organization. Robbins et al. [2] stated that some researchers used to believe that the relationship between job satisfaction and performance was a myth. But a review of 300 studies said the correlation was strong enough. When we moved from the individual level to the organization we found support for job satisfaction relationship. It was found that organizations with more employees were more satisfied and tended to be more effective compared to organizations with fewer employees.

While job satisfaction itself was actually a reflection of the attitude of employees towards work and its environment that could be measured by looking at aspects of employment using satisfaction Minnesita Questionnaire (MSQ). The study of various aspects of work activities, independence, diversity, social status, human relationships of superiors, technical capabilities superiors, moral values, security, social services, authority, usability capabilities, reward, institutional policy, promotion, responsibility, creativity, working conditions, coworkers, recognition and pride could find out how much the level of satisfaction a lecturer. Research conducted by Desamen revealed that motivational variable directly affected Thus it was suspected that job satisfaction affected performance of lecturers.

The effect of organizational commitment and job satisfaction lecturer simultaneously on the performance of lecturers

Motivation and lecturers’ performance could be interpreted as a measure of success or achievement over the job that had been implemented. This was in accordance with the opinion of Umam and Khaerul [1] who stated that the performance was a record of the effects produced on a job function or activity for a certain period associated with organizational objectives Employee performance was defined as the work of someone's employee, a management process or an organization as a whole, where the results of the work had to be shown concrete and measurable evidence (compared to the standard that has been determined according to the results of the work).

Lecturers’ performance in an institution would be a benchmark for the success of the institution, the higher the level of competence of the faculty, the higher faculty performance in carrying out its core functions, such as teaching, research and community service. Their high competence had to be balanced with a strong motivation or encouragement from lecturers to continue to serve the institution (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: Research model.

Based on the above theoretical framework, the theoretical framework of the research design research as follows:

Hypothesis

Hypothesis in this research were the temporary answer of problems 1 to 9. Based on the above theoretical framework, the hypothesis of this research were as follows:

H1 : Competence effected job satisfaction of lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra?

H2 : Work motivation effected job satisfaction of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

H3 : Organizational commitment effected job satisfaction of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

H4 : Competence, motivation and commitment simultaneously effected job satisfaction of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

H5 : Competence affected the performance of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

H6 : Work motivation affected the performance lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

H7 : Organizational commitment affected the performance of lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra?

H8 : Job satisfaction affected the performance of lecturer in state universities in South Sumatra?

H9 : Competence, motivation, organizational commitment and job satisfaction simultaneously affected the performance lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra?

Method

This research employed quantitative research approach. This meant that the data and analysis were based on figures which were then calculated statistically, so that the meaning and result inference were also based on the results of statistical analysis. The method was explanatory research method. Explanatory research is a research method used to obtain the description, a systematic picture, factual and accurate facts, as well as the nature of the meticulous relationship among variables [27].

The unit of analysis of this research was the individual of the lecturers of state universities in South Sumatra. Viewed from time horizon, this research was cross sectional meaning that information on the part of the population (respondent sample) was collected at the scene empirically, in order to know the opinion of the majority of the population to the object being researched, as proposed by Sekaran.

Operational variables

Operational variable definition was intended to clarify the variables to be studied. The subjects of this study were:

• Competence (ξ1) as independent variable

• Motivation (ξ2) as the independent variable

• Organizational Commitment (ξ3) as independent variable

• Job satisfaction (η1) as intervening variable

• Performance lecturer (η2) as the dependent variable.

Population refers to the entire group of people, events, or objects that interest researchers to examine. The population (unit of analysis) of this research was lecturers of University of Sriwijaya, Raden Fatah State Islamic University, State Polytechnic of Sriwijaya and Sriwijaya Health Polytechnic.

So in this study the number of lecturers used as sample were 335 respondents consisted of four state universities by dividing proportional random sampling.

The modeling approach and techniques used as tools of analysis in this dissertation was Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Software LISREL. The reason of the use of this method was the ability to measure the construct indirectly, i.e., through the indicators and simultaneously analyze the indicator variables and latent variables.

Finding

Full model equations using the SEM program LISREL 8.70 trajectory diagram obtained two models, i.e. standardized models and models of t-values, each model as shown in the following figures:

Based on Figures 2 and 3, the calculation was presented on the next test parameter β (loading factor / coefficient dimensional) structural model of exogenous and endogenous. This test was intended to determine the causal relationship or influence the latent variables to other latent variables, a strong indicator of whether or not each of the latent variables (constructs).

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Figure 2: Struktural Model (Standardized Model).

social-sciences-struktural

Figure 3: Struktural Model (t-value Model).

Discussion

The effect of competence on job satisfaction

This section tested hypotheses about the influence of exogenous variables Competence (ξ1) against endogenous variable Job Satisfaction (η1). Based on Figures 2 and 3 above, it turned out t count of competence effect on job satisfaction was 4.62> 1.96, so it could be said to be significant, thus competence had positive and significant effect on job satisfaction of lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra. The effect was 0.35, meaning that the better the faculty competence of lecturers, the higher job satisfaction would be, thus the first hypothesis was accepted. Results of testing the first hypothesis of this study was in line with the results of Nur’aeni [21], Dawn [28] who proved through researches that the level of competence of lecturers significantly effected job satisfaction.

The dominant indicators were professional competence (X2), while the dominant indicator of job satisfaction was the satisfaction of a promotion (Y3).This was the findings in this study that the competency of the lecturers, especially in the dimension of professional competence was able to increase job satisfaction, especially in the dimension of satisfaction with the promotions they had.

Professional competence was the mastery of broad and deep subject matter, design, implement and conduct research, and community service. For example, a lecturer mastered the competencies and were able to carry out continuous research and community service and were able to actualize knowledge to students and the wider community.

The effect of work motivation on job satisfaction

This section tested hypotheses about the influence of exogenous variables Motivation (ξ2) against endogenous variable Job Satisfaction (η1).

Based on Figures 2 and 3 above, the t count of influence on Job Satisfaction Motivation was2.97> 1.96, so it was said to be significant, thus the motivation positively and significantly affected job satisfaction of lecturers in state universities in Sumatra South.

The major direct influence work motivation on job satisfaction was 0.26, meaning that when lecturers working motivation increased, job satisfaction would increase, thus the second hypothesis was accepted. Results of testing the hypothesis 2 were consistent with the results of Lotunani and Idrus [3], Dhermawan [8] who proved through his research that motivation positively related to job satisfaction. The workers would increase their satisfaction if the working conditions also rose.

Likewise, the results of testing this hypothesis was consistent with the results from Ahmed [10] who argued that intrinsic motivation had positive influence job satisfaction. The indicators that made up the predominant motivation was the need for power (need achievement power) (X6), while the indicator of the dominant form of job satisfaction was the satisfaction of a promotion (Y3). This resulted in a finding that motivation of lecturers, especially in the dimension of the power needs (need achievement power) could improve job satisfaction, especially in the dimension of satisfaction with the promotions they had.

The effect of organizational commitment on job satisfaction

This section tested hypotheses of the effect of exogenous variables Commitment (ξ3) against endogenous variable job satisfaction (η1).

Based on Figures 2 and 3 above, the t count of the effect of organizational commitment on job satisfaction was 3.48>1.96, so it was said to be significant, thus the organizational commitment had significant and positive effect on job satisfaction of lecturers. The major direct effect of organizational commitment on job satisfaction was 0:32, meaning that the higher organizational commitment, the higher the job satisfaction would be, thus Hypothesis 3 was accepted (Table 5:24). Results of testing the hypothesis 3 were consistent with the opinion of walton cited by Brown [29], that the strategy of the organizational commitment as an approach that was rewards in managing resources. The high organizational commitment to the job would make lecturers work optimum. The previous study conducted by Ariyasa stated that organizational commitment affected job satisfaction of high school teachers in the district of Karang Asem. Variable of teacher professional development became the dominant factor affecting job satisfaction of teachers.

The dominant dimensions of variable organizational commitment was normative commitment (X10), while the dominant dimension of Job satisfaction was on promotion (Y3). It became the finding in this study that organizational commitment of lecturers especially in the dimension of normative commitment would increase job satisfaction especially in the dimension of satisfaction on promotion.

The effect of competence, work motivation and organizational commitment simultaneously on job satisfaction

This section tested the hypothesis about the effect of exogenous variables Competence (ξ1), Motivation (ξ2) and organizational commitment (ξ3) simultaneously on endogen variable job satisfaction (η1). Results obtained by using 8.70 lisrel programs for structural equation models, according to the proposed hypothesis could be seen in structural equation 1 below.

KEPUASAN=0.35×KOMPETEN+0.26×MOTIVASI+0.32×KOMITMEN, Error var.=0.37, R²=0.63

(0.075); (0.087); (0.090); (0.081); (0.003)

4.62; 2.97; 3.48; 5.40; 185.26

Based on structural equation 1 above, the magnitude of loading factor (coefficient lines) variable Competence on Job Satisfaction was 0.35, the amount of loading factor (coefficient lines) variable Motivation on Job Satisfaction was 0.26 and the magnitude of loading factor (coefficient lines) variable Commitment on Job Satisfaction was 0.32.

Based on the equation 1, Figure 2 above, the value of F account of Competence, Motivation and Organizational Commitment simultaneously on Job Satisfaction was 185.26> 3.84 (F account> 3.84), so it was said to be significant, thus competence, work motivation and organizational commitment simultaneously had positive and significant effect on job satisfaction, thus the fourth hypothesis was accepted. The contribution of competence, motivation and organizational commitment on job satisfaction was 63%, the remaining 37% was influenced by other factors, such as organizational culture, career development, leadership, and many other factors for further research to find out. Thus we could conclude that job satisfaction, especially in the dimensions of job satisfaction on promotion (Y3) was positively affected by competence, especially in the dimensions of professional competence (X2), Motivation especially in the dimension of the power need (X6) and commitment especially the dimension of normative commitment (X10). But partially competence had the most dominant influence on Job Satisfaction. This result showed that in performing job, lecturers were dominated by competence variable.

The effect of competence on performance of lecturers

This tested hypothesis to the effect of exogenous variable competence (ξ1) against endogenous variable lecturers’ performance (η2).

Based on Figures 2 and 3 above, t count of competence on performance of lecturers was of 2.51>1.96, so it was said to be significant, thus competence positively and significantly effected on the performance of state university lecturers in South Sumatra. The major direct effect of competence on performance of lecturers was 0.15, meaning that when the competence of the lecturers increased, job satisfaction increased too. Thus Hypothesis 5 was accepted. The testing result of the hypothesis 5 was in line with the results of research conducted by Muhammad [24] which stated that there were positive direct effect on the performance of the lecturers on intellectual, individual lessons and internal focus of control. Likewise, the result of testing was in line with the results of Nur’aeni [21] which stated that motivation, competence and commitment had significant effect on the performance of lecturers. The dominant indicator was dimension of professional competence (X2), while the dominant indicator of lecturers’ performance was the dimension of service to the community (Y9). It became the findings in this study that the competence of lecturers, especially in the dimension of professional competence improved the performance of lecturers especially in the dimension of community service.

The effect of motivation on performance of lecturers

Based on Figures 2 and 3 above, t count of motivation effect on lecturers’ performance was 3:34>1.96, so it was said to be significant, thus Motivation positively and significantly effect on performance of lecturers. The major direct effect motivation on performance lecturer was 0.31, meaning that the more motivated the lecturers, the high the performance would be. Thus Hypothesis 6 was accepted. Testing result of hypothesis 6 were consistent with the results of Lumaknulhakim, that the two independent variables, namely the competence and motivation had significant positive effect on the performance of lecturers. The results of this study found that motivation was built through power need (X6) could improve the performance of lecturers built by community service (Y9). Power need encouraged lecturer to continue working in the state universities, and tended to improve community service.

The effect of organizational commitment on performance of lecturers

This section tested hypotheses about the effect of exogenous variables of organizational commitment (ξ3) against endogenous variable performance of lecturer (η2). Based on Figures 2 and 3 above, the value of t account of the effect of organizational commitment to performance was 2.90>1.96 so it was significant. Thus the organizational commitment significantly affected performance. This meant that the higher the organizational commitment of lecturers, the higher the performance would be. Thus hypothesis 7 was accepted. This finding was line with Etta, et al. who conducted study on the influence of organizational culture and organizational commitment that led to job satisfaction and its impact on performance.

The high organizational commitment would make lecturers university or college regulation. This would make lecturers work optimal so that the performance was also high.

The effect of job satisfaction on performance of lecturers

Based on Figures 2 and 3 above, the value t of the effect of job satisfaction on lecturers’ performance was 5:20>1.96, so it was significant. The major direct effect of lecturers’ performance on job satisfaction was 0:39, meaning that the higher job satisfaction, the higher performance of lecturers. Thus hypothesis 8 was accepted. Testing results of hypothesis 8 were consistent with the results of Maryadi [22] who explained that the significant effect of job satisfaction on the performance of private university lecturers in Surabaya. The results of the above analysis resulted in a finding that job satisfaction established by the satisfaction of a promotion (Y3) could improve the performance lecturer built by Community Service (Y9). This meant that if lecturer satisfied mainly in satisfaction with the promotion, then the lecturers’ performance would increase too, especially in carrying out community service.

The effect of competence, motivation, commitment and job satisfaction simultaneously on performance of lecturers

Results obtained by using 8.70 lisrel program for structural equation models, according to the proposed hypothesis was in structural equation 2 below.

KINERJA=0.39×KEPUASAN+0.15×KOMPETEN+0.31×MOTIVASI+0.22×KOMITMEN, Error var.=0.17, R²=0.83

(0.083); (0.070); (0.067); (0.083); (0.051); (0.002)

5.20; 2.51; 3.34; 2.90; 6.43; 392.40

Based on structural equation 2 above, the magnitude of path coefficient of competence on performance of lecturers was 0.15, the path coefficients of motivation on performance of lecturers was 0.31, the coefficient lines of commitment on performance of lecturers was 0.22 and the magnitude of path coefficients Job satisfaction on the performance of lecturers was 0.39.

Based on the equation 2, Figures 2 and 3 above, the value of F of the effect of competence, motivation, commitment and job satisfaction simultaneously on performance of lecturer was 392.40>3.84 (F account>3.84), so it was significant, thus competence, motivation, organizational commitment and job satisfaction simultaneously positive and significant impact on the performance of lecturers of state universities in South Sumatra. Thus hypothesis 9 was accepted. The major contribution of competence, work motivation, organizational commitment and job satisfaction on performance of lecturers was 83%, the rest of 17% influenced by other factors such as organizational culture, career development, leadership, and other factors for further research to find out.

Thus we concluded performance of lecturer was positively affected by competence, motivation, commitment and job satisfaction. But organizational commitment partially had the most dominant effect on the performance of lecturers. Testing result of the hypothesis 9 this study was consistent with the results Maryadi [22], Nur’aeni [21] which stated that motivation and job satisfaction effected performance of lecturers. Likewise, results of this test complements the results of research Argensia, which stated that motivation, job satisfaction and employee performance with moderation of commitments had positive and significant effect.

Direct and indirect effect

The indirect effect of competence on performance of lecturers by job satisfaction was 0.35×0.39=0.1365, but direct influence of performance of lecturers on competence was 0.15×0.15=0.0225, or had contribution of 2.25% so that competence could improve performance of lecturers when the satisfaction employment was 13.65% (partial mediating).

Indirect effect of work motivation on the performance of lecturers by job satisfaction as a mediating variable was 0.26×0.39=0.1014 or indirect effect of motivation on performance of lecturers by job satisfaction was 10.14%, while the direct effect of work motivation on performance of lecturers was 0.31×0:31=0.0961 or having a contribution of 9.61% so motivation improved performance of lecturers when job satisfaction was 10.14% (partial mediating).

The indirect effect of organizational commitment on the performance of lecturers through job satisfaction was 0.22×0.39=0.0858 or contributed 8.58%, while the direct effect of organizational commitment on faculty performance of 0.222 was 0.0484 or had a contribution of 4.84%, so organizational commitment improved the performance of lecturers by 8.58% by job satisfaction (partial mediating).

Conclusion

Managerial Implications

Based on the analysis of testing and discussion, the managerial implications of the research are as follows:

• Research findings showed that competence, motivation and organizational commitment of lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra had significant and positive impact on job satisfaction. So that the dimensions of the third variable need to be considered and enhanced to improve it. To improve job satisfaction, empirical evidence showed that it was necessary to increase the competence, motivation and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction lecturers of the universities in South Sumatra, especially in the dimension of normative commitment would increase if the lecturers in were able to improve their competence, especially in the dimensions of professional competence, capability of improving organizational commitment, especially in the dimension of normative commitment and increase the motivation especially in the dimensions of power needs.

• Research findings showed that competence, motivation, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction had positive and significant impact on the performance of lecturers. So that the dimensions of the four variables need to be considered and improved in order to improve the performance of lecturers. To improve the performance, empirical evidence showed that it was necessary to increase the competence, motivation, commitment, and job satisfaction Lecturer. Performance especially in the dimension of community service would be able to be increased if lecturers were able to increase job satisfaction, especially in the dimension of satisfaction with the promotion. Then job satisfaction would increase if lecturers were capable of increasing competence, especially in the dimensions of professional competence, capable of improving organizational commitment, especially in the dimension of normative commitment and increasing the motivation especially in the dimensions of the power needs.

Managerial Advice

Based on empirical finding obtained, the final part of this dissertation, researcher given some suggestions in an attempt to improve the competence, motivation, commitment and job satisfaction to the performance lecturers.

• Job satisfaction of lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra had been relatively good so it was able to provide an increase in performance in implementing the Tri Darma of Higher Education. Increased job satisfaction mainly on the dimensions of satisfaction with the promotion of functional influenced predominantly by improving the competence mainly on the dimensions of professional competence. Some indicators on the competence of lecturers that were suggested to be focused and improved by the leaders of state universities in South Sumatra among others are the greater diversity of learning outcomes measurement, control over current issues, using the research results to improve the quality of the course, the involvement of students in research, using a variety of communication technology and knowing the students well.

• The performance of lecturers in state universities in South Sumatra was relatively very high in carrying out the implementation of the Tri Darma of Higher Education. Improved performance of lecturers influenced predominantly by faculty job satisfaction mainly on the dimensions of satisfaction with the promotion of functional positions. Some indicators on job satisfaction of the lecturers that were suggested to have more attention and improve many among others are salary level indicators, promotion and co-workers. Some elements of faculty performance that are suggested to be noticed and enhanced is indicator to develop teaching materials, develop student activities in the academic field, translate or create reports of scientific work.

Suggestions for Further Research

• To improve the performance of lecturers in carrying out their work, it is 17% comprising other factors like organizational culture, career development, career path, leadership, or there may be other factors other than the ones discussed in this research have the dominant influence to improve the performance of lecturers.

• In this study the variable of job satisfaction as mediating variables of competence, motivation and commitment variables to the performance of lecturer. Next researcher can have additional intervening variables on performance like variables of trust or work discipline. So that the results will be different and more comprehensive.

• The results of this research can also be applied to other institutions, such as private colleges and public service sector. It is also expected that this research will be continued with different objects, so that the benefits of this research will be more

References