Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Received date: 07/12/2021; Accepted date: 21/12/2021; Published date: 28/12/2021
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The ecological system consists of all living things and the environment in which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are connected together by nutrient cycles and energy flow. Energy enters the system through photosynthesis and is absorbed into plant tissues. By eating plants and others, animals play a vital role in the flow of energy into the system. They also affect the number of plants and microbial biomass present. By dismantling dead organisms, carbon dioxide replenishes and makes it easier for cycling elements to convert organic matter into dead biomass back into a state that can be easily absorbed by plants and bacteria. External factors such as climate, parental elements that make up the soil and climate control the formation of the ecosystem but are not influenced by the ecosystem. Internal factors are controlled, for example, by decay, root competition, shading, disruption, sequence, and the types of species present. Although resource inputs are usually controlled by external processes, the availability of these resources in the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors. Ecosystems are flexible businesses they are subject to occasional disruption and are always on the verge of recovery from a previous disruption. The tendency of the ecosystem to remain close to its equilibrium state, despite that disruption, is called its resistance. The ability of the system to absorb disruption and reorganize during changes to essentially maintain the same function, structure, identity, and responses is called its natural stability. The ecosystem can be studied in a variety of ways theoretical studies, studies that monitor a particular ecosystem over time, those that look at the differences between the ecosystem to see how they work and conduct deceptive experiments. Ecosystem classification is a specific type of ecosystem that takes into account all four aspects of the ecosystem definition: the biotic component, the abiotic complex, the interaction within and between them, and the physical environment in which they are located. The ecosystem provides a variety of goods and services on which people rely. The services of an ecosystem, on the other hand, are generally the development of a state or place of value. These include things like hydrological preservation, air and water purification, atmospheric preservation, plant maturity and even things like beauty, inspiration and research opportunities. Many ecosystems are affected by human impact, such as soil loss, air and water pollution, habitat fragmentation, water divergence, firefighting, and biodiversity. These threats can lead to a sudden change in the ecosystem or to a gradual disruption of biotic processes and the destruction of the abiotic conditions of the ecosystem. External factors, also called geographical features, control the overall structure of the ecosystem and the way things work within it, but they themselves are not influenced by the ecosystem. In the broader spatial dimensions, climate is a factor that determines the processes and structure of the ecosystem. Rainfall patterns and seasonal temperatures influence photosynthesis and thus determine the amount of energy available in the ecosystem. The main production is the production of organic matter from inorganic carbon sources. The energy gathered through this process supports life on earth, while carbon makes up the bulk of living things in living and dead biomass, soil carbon, and fossil fuels. It also drives a carbon cycle, which affects the global climate with a greenhouse effect. The carbon and nutrients in dead organisms are separated by a set of processes known as decay. This releases nutrients that can also be used for plant and bacterial production and returns carbon dioxide into the atmosphere where it can be used for photosynthesis. If there were no rot, dead organisms would accumulate in the ecosystem, and nutrients and carbon dioxide would be depleted. As the number of people and the use of the individual grow, so do the needs of the service increasingly placed on ecosystems and the impacts of the human environment. Natural resources are endangered and limited. Problems for all ecosystems include: pollution, climate change and the loss of biodiversity. In the natural environment of the earth, other threats include air pollution, land degradation, and deforestation. In aquatic environments the threats include uncontrolled exploitation of marine resources, marine pollution, small plastic pollution, the effects of climate change at sea and construction on coastal areas.