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Gender Discrimination and its Implication on Performance of Local Government Staff in Oyo State, Nigeria

Bassey Moses Igwe*

Department of Political and Governance Policy, University of Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research Ibadan, Ibadan State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Bassey Moses Igwe
Department of Political and Governance Policy,
Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research Ibadan University,
Ibadan State,

Received: 11-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. JSS-22-51632; Editor assigned: 13- Jan-2022, Pre QC No. JSS -22-51632(PQ); Reviewed: 27- Jan-2022, QC No. JSS -22-51632; Accepted: 31-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. JSS -22-51632(A); Published: 7-Feb-2022,   DOI: 10.4172/ J Social Sciences.8.1.002.  

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The local government is the third tier of government and the closest to the people. However, over the years it has performed below expectation leading to many people calling for its abolition. Many factors have been identified as responsible for its poor performance; among which is the placing of women who are fundamental parts of the society in a disadvantaged position. The paper examined the effect of gender discrimination on job performance among the staff of the ATISBO Local Government (ALG) area of Oyo State. The paper adopted the Descriptive Survey; the populations of this study were 456 staff working in ALG (National Union of Local Government Employees, 2019). A sample size of 50 respondents, purposively drawn participated in the study. The paper also used both primary (qualitative and quantitative) and secondary sources of data. The quantitative data were the 50 questionnaires administered on the staff of ALG while the qualitative data were 5 Key Informant Interviews (KII) conducted on the Head of Departments (administration and general service, education and social service, agriculture, finance and supplies and budget, planning research and statistics). The secondary data are books, journals, articles consulted, etc. The paper discovered that cases of gender discrimination exist in ALG; this is attributed to the nature of the Nigerian State (patrilineal, religion, and culture). The conclusion is that a nation without the full participation of women cannot achieve full development. Despite an insignificant difference in the work performance of male and female employees, the females are considerably underestimated. The paper recommended that the LG should be made liberal for all gender to participate fully as this will lead to improved job performance and the local government achieving its purpose of establishment.


Gender discrimination; Gender; Performance; Staff


The local government is the third tier of government in Nigeria. It was created to bring the government closer to the people by delivering quality services that will improve their living standards. The local government as a system of local communities and towns structured to preserve law and order and offer some social services aimed at improving people's living situations at the grassroots level [1]. It can also be described as government at the local level exercised through a representative council established by law to exercise specific powers within a defined area [2]. These powers which are derived from the constitution give the council substantial control over local affairs, staff of the council, institutional and financial powers to initiate and direct the provision of services. Others are to domesticate the activities of state and federal government in their areas and ensure, through devolution of functions the active participation of the people and their traditional institutions.

The availability of quality management in terms of skills, education, and experiences is very important in determining the success of an organization including the local government. In other for any organization to achieve its set out goals and objectives, they require the service of competent employees irrespective of gender [3]. Many organizations, most especially in developing countries have over the years placed women in a disadvantaged position. This can be attributed to the culture, customs, religion, and patrilineal nature of some societies. The discrimination against women manifests in a variety of ways which includes physical, social, psychological (emotional), economic, and sexual violence. The World Health Organization (WHO) described gender discrimination as any act that causes or is likely to cause physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering whether in public or private life.

Women participate actively in the economy as members of the labour force; however, in many developing countries like Nigeria, the neglect of women’s contribution to the economy had led to their marginalization in the nation's planning process [4]. It has been stressed over time that in public service the female gender had suffered untold subordination and discrimination. It has gradually become more evident to organizations that discrimination is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. A 2010 report by CLEEN Foundation stated that discrimination against Nigerian women particularly in the workplace was projected to increase from 17 percent in 2010 to 31 percent in 2012. So, therefore, understanding the underlying dynamics of discrimination is necessary before organizations can take effective action to reduce or prevent it. It, therefore, becomes imperative to promote gender equality as a development strategy thereby enhancing the efficiency of public institutions.

The Nigerian State in its commitment to ensuring gender equality has enshrined the principle of non-discrimination of people based on sex, religion, ethnicity, etc in Section 2 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (CFRN). Despite the law enacted and the domestication of many international conventions on gender discrimination, they have not achieved the desired outcome. These and many other problems made the Federal Government put immense effort to halt the menace of gender discrimination both in the public and private sectors where the ugly practice still exists. It is against this background this paper examines gender discrimination and employee performance among the staff of ATISBO local government area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The following research questions will be addressed by this study: What are the major causes of gender discrimination in ATISBO LG? How does gender discrimination affect staffs performance? What are the strategies that have been put in place to manage gender discrimination in ATISBO LG?

Materials and Methods

Gender discrimination global world view

Gender discrimination is a global issue that has been addressed by international organizations, state governments, non-governmental organizations, and civil society organizations. The Mayor of Paris and chairperson of the standing committee on Gender Equality of the United Cities of Local Government stated that the construction of democracy cannot be understood without the prominent input of women and our work must be focused on presenting concrete proposals that help us to alter the situation in our societies and organizations. Local and regional governments have a long track record of working internationally for gender equality, with a particular focus on increasing the representation of locally elected women and promoting the participation of all women in local decision-making.

In 1998, the International Union of Local Authorities (IULA) adopted the foundational document of international principles and commitments concerning the action of local and regional governments in the field of women’s rights. In 2006, the council of Europe the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR) drew up the Charter that encourages local and regional governments to make a public commitment to equality and to implement concrete practices in the areas of political participation, employment, public services, and urban planning to promote gender equality. So far, more than 1400 local and regional governments in 29 countries have signed the Charter [5].

In 2013, the Global Conference of Local Elected Women adopted the Agenda is inspired by the Worldwide Declaration on Women in Local Government and the values and principles contained in the European Charter on Equality of Women and Men in Local Life. It aims to be a strategic tool to increase equality between women and men in all spheres of decision-making. Sustainable Development Goal 5 of the 2030 Agenda is about ending violence and discrimination against women and girls and making sure they have equal opportunities in all areas of life (UNDP, 2015). Significantly, SDG 5 both calls for policies for women, and participation by women in political, economic, and public life. In other words, the goal understands that SDG 5 relates too many of the direct responsibilities of local governments and is an opportunity for local and regional administrations to build on our existing international commitments and demonstrate our vital role in the achievement of global gender equality. In global commitment, in 1986, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the declaration on the right of all countries by proclaiming the right that each person and all peoples of the world are entitled to participate and contribute to economic social-cultural and political development for the full realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The year 2005 marked a significant milestone in the struggle against gender discrimination. As the Copenhagen Declaration and the Beijing Platform were adopted with the sole aim to eliminate gender discrimination and guarantee gender equality in our society. African countries were not left out in the struggle against GD as in 1981 they adopted the African Charter on Human and People's Rights (AHPR) and the ECOWAS Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance was adopted in 2001, and the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), which was adopted in July 2001. All of these rules are aimed at improving gender equality in the workplace.

Gender discrimination in Nigeria

The Nigerian state got independence in 1960 and became a republic in 1963. The state is heterogeneous comprising people with different cultures, religions, and political ideologies. Although the constitution of the Nigerian state is secular, the work environment does not reflect that, as workers most especially the female sex are largely discriminated against most time based on religion, culture, and the patrilineal nature of the state. Gender discrimination serves as an obstacle to the employment or appointment of the employee into leadership positions or authority. Every employee has potential in them and possesses certain skills but usually requires a good work environment for them to showcase their leadership endowment and perform optimally. Defined gender discrimination as the deliberate deprivation of rights (political, family, social, economic) of an individual that could have made them contributes positively to the development of the organization and the society at large. It is in this light that gender discrimination is seen as a phenomenon that has negative implications on the development of organizations and people whether in a public or private organization where it is present [6].

The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria recognizes the harms of gender discrimination and establishes non-discrimination and gender equality as the foundation for societal progress. A citizen of Nigeria of any community, ethnic group, and place of origin, sex, religion, or political viewpoint should not be subjected to any kind of discrimination for any reason, according to Section 42(1) of the same Constitution. According to the preceding, the Nigerian constitution prohibits discrimination against Nigerian women in any form. According to [7], the problem is the language used in the Nigerian Constitution, which shows a desire to maintain Nigerian cultures' patriarchal traditions. This is because the pronoun 'He' appears 235 times throughout the constitution, whilst the word 'women' appears just twice.

Furthermore, to address the issue of gender discrimination, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) implemented a strategic employment policy that included funding for gender sensitization training in both the public and private sectors. These initiatives aim to create public awareness and sensitize the public on the importance of women's participation in both the formal and informal sectors, as well as to break down traditional attitudes and prejudices regarding women's work, through mass mobilization efforts. However, despite the appointment of women to the position of permanent secretaries (beginning in 2000 and line with affirmative action), all of the government's policies at the federal, state, and local levels have been ineffective. A cursory examination of the federal civil service worker breakdown in Nigeria revealed that 75 percent of them are men, whereas women constitute 25% and occupy less than 14% of overall management positions.

Stated that women are largely employed in lower-status jobs than their male counterparts despite their large population size and enhanced educational qualifications. Commenting on the origin and reality of gender discrimination against women in management, politics, and social affairs, it was argued that although the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria provides for non-discrimination and equality between the sexes, in reality, the gap between the law and the practice is quite wide and seemingly parallel [6]. Since studies have shown that contributing towards development in any society is not gender-discriminatory, the promotion of gender equality of men and women as a strategy for sustainable development, either in the public or private sector in Nigeria, is a healthy venture that is worth pursuing. This is because in many developed countries of the world there is little or no gender gap in power-sharing between males and females.

Oyo State as of 2019 had a total of 9794 civil servants in the local government areas, the male gender constitutes 67.9% whereas the female gender was four 32.1% (Report on staff screening and verification of local government Areas, 2019). Whereas, in ATISBO local government council out of the eight heads of department only one is a female, in Ibara North LGA all the eight heads of department are all males, in Iseyin LGA all the heads of Departments are male. In the ATISBO local government out of the four hundred and seventy-two (472) local government staffs male constitutes 65% while females form 35% of the workforce (NULGE, 2019). All these show that there is a high level of gender discrimination most especially against women in the different aspects of life.

The effect of gender discrimination on job performance

Employee performance plays a very significant role in determining the overall success of an organization which is its ability to achieve its set out goals and purpose of existence (Jain, 2008). Performance can simply be defined as the “degree of accomplishment of tasks that make up an employee’s job”. They defined performance as the results or impact of activities of an individual over a given period [8]. It comprises efforts directed towards achieving organizational goals. The performance also shows the degree to which employees meet their job requirements. Performance is usually measured by the output. In other words, when an individual puts in great efforts in a task and the output is low, the effort is high but performance is poor. In the light of a job, performance refers to the aggregate effort comprised of abilities and tasks employees expended on their jobs.

Denison and Mishra (1995) identified four traits of employee performance in organizational culture as consistency, involvement, adaptability, and mission which are also important predictors of other efficiency criteria such as employee satisfaction, quality, and overall performance. Research by suggests that organizations need to manage their human resource effectively to get the maximum contribution of employees to organization achievement. Further state that for achieving the overall goals of an organization, managing and improving employee performance are decisive because employee performance has a direct relation to organizations' productivity and triumph [9]. A report by General Accounting Office, Washington (1998), emphasizes the importance of agencies addressing HRM issues of management of employee performance and aligning with agencies goals and mission.

Employee performance depends on several indicators such as increments, performance appraisal system, job security, job satisfaction, training and development, organization structure, and so on. On the other hand, a study by that there are no factors affecting employee performance such as intrinsic, extrinsic rewards, well-defined job descriptions, and a pessimistic impact of gender discrimination. Payment concerning salary is a form of exchange between employers and employees for human capital services. Other forms of exchange could be non-monetary, such as promotions. Promotions lead to an increase in job level. likely to the argument given above, women, because they have less human capital, will receive fewer promotions and consequently inhabit commensurately lower job levels in exchange for the same labour services [10].

Further concluded that organizational justice is directly proportional to evaluating employee performance and is mainly concerned to ensure fair treatment between different gender and race. To improve employee attitude and performance, the employees should be selected based on individual disposition [11]. Female employees’ performance, perceived career growth, and comfort at the job are strongly related to equal job opportunity and indiscriminative work environment [12]. Taylor (2008) noted that employee performance evaluation is a tool to ensure whether the employees are treated fairly and demonstrate management is biased or unbiased. Employees may give a low level of preference to a current inequality between their efforts and rewards in the form of distributive justice as they anticipate the organization to have most likely distributive injustice in the current exchange association into a justified effort-reward ratio in the future [13]. Justice perception was positive about job satisfaction, job performance, and attendance despite individuals' position on the personality variables, those scoring less on power distance showed stronger effects than those scoring more on power distance [14].

According to research by responsibility lies on the leaders to create an organizational ambiance that is reciprocal, fair, and fulfilling the expectations and needs of individuals who in terms lead to increased employee performance and the organization as a whole [15]. Further state, managing disputes in an organization, line managers' discrimination while handling grievances between employees will lead to poor performance [16]. Social closure through discrimination alongside women or minorities is perceived as a more direct cause? A cause of workplace disparities is captured in statistical residuals once other factors have been accounted [17].

Organizational traditions and norms have an important impact on employees’ job routines [11]. Even though they are not the only factors determining the results of justice perceptions, differences in workers' preference for meticulous reward allocation rules (for example., equity versus equality) may somewhat explain differences in the effects of procedural (perceived fairness of the results employees receive) and distributive justice (perceived fairness of the ways used to determine those results [14]. In Phillips, the Court held that female and male parents should be judged by the same standard, but contradictory family duties may be more applicable to job performance for women than men. So, in contrast to the benefits cases, it is evident that pregnancy and child-rearing were conundrums the court could not be easily resolved [18]. It has to be stated that if there is any form of discrimination against any gender, it is expected that there would be a shift in the emotional status of such an individual, which tends to affect his/her performance and career advancement..

Theoretical framework

The theoretical proposition for this paper is Kanter’s Glass-Ceiling theory of 1977. The theory states that the work structure of many organizations particularly white-collar jobs places women in lower job positions against the men thereby effectively putting a glass ceiling on them and preventing them from reaching the greatest height. In three dimensions, he defined how work is organized:

• Opportunity: Workers with less opportunity have lower self-esteem and aspiration, whereas those with larger opportunities are likely to be more competitive and have higher self-esteem.

• Power was defined as the ability to mobilize resources in support of one's personal goals. People in positions of little power are often authoritarian, subordinate, coercive, critical, territorial, and poorly connected. People in positions of high power are non-directive, encouraging to subordinates, helpful, and well-liked.

• Proportions: This is a mix of people. The small percentage is usually very apparent, emphasized, and stereotyped. The large proportions blend in with the group, discover networking opportunities, and get sponsors surreptitiously.

The research design for this study is the descriptive survey research method that was adopted because of its effectiveness in attitudinal and behavioral studies. The descriptive survey helps to collect detailed and factual information that describes an existing phenomenon. The population of this study is estimated at 498 staff working in ALG, Oyo State, Nigeria. A sample size of 105 respondents will be drawn from ALG to participate in the study. The purposive sampling technique will be used to select respondents for the study. The sampling criteria are that the respondents must have worked in the institution for at least three years. Data will be gathered through primary and secondary sources. The primary sources will adopt both the qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. The qualitative method consists of an In-depth Interview while the quantitative is questionnaires. The secondary sources will involve the use of textual materials such as books, journals, newspapers, monographs, and records from non-governmental organizations and government institutions. The data gathered was analyzed using the descriptive statistic of simple frequency, percentages, and tables. The findings from the interviews collaborated with the findings Figure 1.


Figure 1: Department of Education and Social Service ATISBO Local Government, 2020.

Results and Discussion

Demographic variables

The demographic distribution of the respondents, it reveals that about 60% of the respondents are males while 40% are females. This means that both genders used were well represented in the study (Table 1).

Sex Frequency Percentages
 Male 30 60
Female 20 40
Total 50 100

Table 1. The demographic distribution of the respondents.

18-28 years respondents are 6% respondents, 29-39 years of the respondents had the highest 20%, and 40-50 years of the respondents are 40% while 51%-above are 34%. From the respondents’ age, it can be seen from a glance that 40%-50% of the respondents are 40% and 51-above are 34%. This means that 74% of the respondents are from 40 years and above (Table 2).

   Age Frequency Percentages
18 – 28 3 6
29– 39 10 20
40– 50 20 40
51–Above 17 34
 Total 50 100

Table 2. Respondents of age and field survey, 2020.

26% of the respondents are single, 66% are married and 8% were formerly married but now divorced. This simply means that on Marital status the respondents were well represented and most of them used for the study are married (Table 3).

Marital Status
Marital Status Frequency Percentages
Single 13 26
Married 33 66
Divorced 4 8
Total 50 100

Table 3. The respondents were well represented and most of them used for the study are married.

40% of the respondents were Christians, 44% were Muslims and 16% of the respondents were of other religions. The others refer to those respondents who are traditional religion practitioners or Pagan. The findings from the table revealed that the majority of those working in ALG are either Christian or Muslim. This further buttresses the popular belief and perception of both religions as the two most dominant religions in the land, Nigeria (Table 4).

Religion Frequency  Percentages
Christians 20 40
Muslims 22 44
Others 8 16
Total 50 100

Table 4. The findings from the table revealed that the majority of those working in ALG are either Christian or Muslim.

34% of the respondents are either Ordinary National Diploma or National Certificate Examination holders, 38% had BSC/B.A/B.Ed, 20% had MSC/MA and 8% have professional qualifications. This means that all the respondents use for the study were well educated, this help the researcher as little time was spent in explaining what the study is all about and they also understood what the study was all about (Table 5).

Education Frequency Percentages
OND/NCE 17 34
B.SC/B.A/B.ED 19 38
M.SC/M.A 10 20
Professional Cert, 4 8
Total 50 100

Table 5. The study is all about the respondents use for the study were well educated.

Education Frequency Percentages
OND/NCE 17 34
B.SC/B.A/B.ED 19 38
M.SC/M.A 10 20
Professional Cert, 4 8
Total 50 100

Table 5. The study is all about the respondents use for the study were well educated.

The demographic distribution of the respondents on position; it revealed that 60% of the respondents were junior staff while 40% are higher senior staff. This means that both higher and lower-level officers were used for the study because they are both important in the administration and survival of the local government (Table 6).

Level Frequency  Percentages
Senior 20 40
Junior 30 60
Total 50 100

Table 6. Those both higher and lower-level officers were used for the study.

The demographic distribution of the respondents on years of service, it revealed that six percent of the respondents (6%) have been working in the polytechnic between 1-5 years; eighteen percent of the respondents (18%) have worked in the polytechnic between 6-10 years. Sixteen percent of the respondents have been working between 11-15 years, thirty-four percent (34%) have worked in the polytechnic between 16-20 years and finally, twenty-six percent (26%) of the respondents are between 21 and above. The findings from this show that the respondents used for this study have been working in the local government service for different numbers of years, so they have first-hand information about the institution and its policies (Table 7).

Years of Service
Years of Service Frequency Percentages
1-5 years 3 6
6-10 years 9 18
11-15 years 8 16
16-20 years 17 34
21-Above 13 26
Total 50 100

Table 7. The respondents used for this study have been working in the local government service for different numbers of years.

12% of the respondents agreed that the nature of Nigeria politics was responsible for gender discrimination in ALG, 32% agreed that religion favored men far above women and in a way caused gender discrimination, 8% agreed that the management policies were responsible for gender discrimination and 48% of the respondents agreed that the patrilineal nature of the Nigerian state was responsible for gender discrimination in the ALG (Table 8).

Causes of GD Frequency Percentages
Politics 6 12
Religion and Ethnicity 16 32
Management 4 8
Patrilineal nature/culture 24 48
Total 50 100

Table 8. Research Question One: What is the major cause of GD in ALG?

According to the Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics (2009), there were 1.9 percent female chairpersons and 4.2 percent female councilors in the 2003 General Elections, but only 3.6 percent female chairpersons and 3.7 percent female councilors in 2007, considerably below the UN minimum of 33 percent. This merely demonstrates that women are largely discriminated against as a result of the type of politics practiced by the Nigerian government and numerous organizations. The organizational leadership positions which are being determined by the management is responsible for formulating policy are overwhelmingly populated by men[19], but the successful occupants of these positions are often described in classically masculine ways. Research has shown that the successful manager is consistently described as more similar to the way men are viewed than to the way women are viewed [20]. Stereotypes thus preclude the accurate assessment of men’s and women’s capabilities to do the job [21]. This sets the stage for bias in selection, placement, and performance evaluation.

In an in-depth interview with one of the respondents who happened to be the Director of Education and Social Welfare department, she stated women are less likely than men to hold key positions in local government. For example, the interim local government caretaker chairperson or chairpersons of ATISBO local government are both men, and only one of the eight directors is a woman. When respondents were asked what they thought was the cause of GD in ALG, they had a variety of responses. For example, out of the eight directors in the local government, there is only one female director. No woman has ever been elected or appointed to the office of local government chairman or in an acting capacity. We only hold minor positions in local government, and I am the only female director in the ALG, out of the eight directors, isn't that GD? Another respondent who is a 48-year-old civil servant and executive member of the National Union of Local Government Employees (NULGE) stated during an interview that the Nigerian culture and religion do not normally support women to be the head in their places of work. Christian women, for example, are not meant to converse when males are chatting unless they are allowed to, whereas Muslim women are to be kept in purdah. In another interview conducted with the Director of Admin and General Service (DAGS), stated that we are in Nigeria, especially here in Yorubaland women are not culturally permitted to equate themselves in any way with the men. It is the men that will make decisions for the women to follow. There is therefore nothing we can do about it as the Holy Quran and Holy Bible supported it, women and men are not equally made by God. Men are to be the head by divine mandate and women are to be second in the schemes of things.

The effect of gender discrimination are numerous and destructive to organizational development. Fourteen percent (14%) of the respondents agreed that gender discrimination makes female workers show less positive attitudes toward their jobs, 16% of the respondents agreed that they show less engagement in their work, 64% agreed that they become dissatisfied with their job and 6% low turnover intention of workers that have been discriminated against (Table 9).

Effects Frequency Percentages
Negative attitude to work 7 14
Low engagement to work 8 16
Job dissatisfaction 32 64
Low turnover 3 6
Total 50 100

Table 9. What are the Effects of Gender Discriminations on staff performance of ALG?

Women's impressions of GD in the workplace, independent of their actual experiences with it, can lead them to have a more unfavorable view of their organizations and experiences than males. Employees describe work environments as challenging to navigate when there is gender discrimination. Indeed, the stress of working in such an atmosphere takes a toll on employees in addition to any prejudice they may face, resulting in less positive attitudes toward their jobs and lower levels of involvement in their work. Discriminatory work settings can lead to a worker's psychological disengagement from their job since they are less content and devoted to their work when they perceive with other workers they have been discriminated against.

Research has shown that women, in general, report their organizations as being less inclusive and less fair than do men [22]. These studies demonstrate that discriminatory work environments can encourage the psychological disengagement of workers from their work as they are less satisfied and committed when they believe that they or others have been the target of discrimination. The full impact of gender discrimination is felt not only by workers but also by organizations that may be losing out on the skills those workers bring into the workplace as they leave at higher rates than they would if discrimination were eliminated [23].

In an interview conducted with Mr. A. Dauda who is the NULGE Chairman and also serves as the information officer, the respondent stated that some likely effect of gender discrimination is that it affects the psyche of workers thereby leading to low productivity. Another respondent Mrs. Alabi, the Director of Education and Social Welfare (DESW) stated that although GD affects worker productivity, many women in ATISBO and many other LG in Nigeria are not given any job scheduled by the director of their department who in most cases is a male [24].

Many women and men in local government don't view GD as a problem because it has been the standard for many employees. Because Nigerian society discriminates against women, there is nothing the LG can do if it occurs [25-27]. In a separate interview, Mr. Femi, a 37-year-old male, indicated that many women employed by the ATISBO local government do not show up for work, or if they do, they arrive late and, in most cases, sit with their coworkers discussing both pertinent and irrelevant subjects until closing time. As a result, GD discrimination has an impact on job turnover intentions, as well as job satisfaction and morale.

30% of the respondents agreed that the different unions within the LG representing workers help redress the issues of gender discrimination against them, (20%) agreed that the constitution has contents or clauses that can help prevent gender discrimination and redress it when it does occur informal setting and other private or government institutions, thirty-eight percent (38%) of the respondents agreed that education has been introduced which is used as criteria to allow any qualified persons irrespective of sex to be promoted or appointed into any office within the LG and finally, twelve percent (12%) of the respondents agreed that gender sensitization program that has been introduced by the federal and state governments to encourage gender equality (Table 10).

Strategies Frequency Percentages
Unions/NLC/NULGE 15 30
Constitutions 10 20
Meritocracy  19 38
Gender Sensitization 6 12
Total 50 100

Table 10. What are the strategies that have been put in place to promote Gender Equality in ALG?

Women make up a larger share of the population of Nigeria, accounting for 49.36% of the overall population [28]. Despite this large number, women remain underrepresented in leadership positions [29]. In acknowledgment of the harms of gender discrimination against women, the Federal Republic of Nigeria's 1999 Constitution mandates non-discrimination and gender equality as the foundation for societal development. To address the issue of gender discrimination in the workplace, the Federal Government of Nigeria implemented strategies in its policy on women's employment, including sponsored training in public and private sector institutions on gender sensitization programs on the role of workers in the development process to raise awareness; and public sensitization through mass mobilization campaigns on the need for women's employment (FGN, 2009) [30]. The Nigerian state has also signed and domesticated various international agreements and policies, including the 1995 World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen, the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, the 1981 African Charter on Human and People's Rights (AHPR), the 2003 Women's Rights Protocol, the 2001 ECOWAS protocol on Democracy and Good Governance, and the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) adopted in July 2001. All of these rules aim to eliminate gender discrimination and promote gender equality in the workplace.


A nation without the full participation of both genders cannot achieve development. Despite an insignificant difference in the work performance of male and female employees, the females are considerably under-rewarded and underestimated. Sustainable Development Goal 5 of the 2030 Agenda is about ending violence and discrimination against women and making sure they have equal opportunities in all areas of life. If there would be a proper gender discrimination policy in the organizations, then there would be a corresponding change in employee performance and an increase in their work motivation and satisfaction.


As a result, the study advised that the local government implement policies that are both inclusive and equitable, particularly in terms of hiring and promotions to high posts. A good remuneration system for employees is necessary to ensure that gender discrimination does not hinder employee productivity. The LG should look into and correct the organization's informal culture, which includes things like behavior, customs, and traditions that are subtle and discriminatory toward women. The local government should recognize both the strengths and shortcomings of an organization's programs and policies, and explore those practices that assist women in advancing in the workforce so that they may be readily defined. Finally, international organizations must be used to implement public policies and activities that eliminate gender disparity and strengthen women's socioeconomic and legal standing.