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Genetics: Gene Expression and Genetic Change

Tony Tran*

Department of Biology, University of Siegen, Germany

*Corresponding Author:
Tony Tran
Department of Biology, University of Siegen, Germany
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: 07/12/2021; Accepted date: 21/12/2021; Published date: 28/12/2021

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Genetics is a branch of biology that deals with genetic research, genetic diversity, and genetics in living things. Genetic inheritance and genetic processes are still fundamental genetic principles, but modern genes have expanded beyond the genetic code to learn the function and behavior of genes. Genetics and function, diversity, and distribution are studied within the context of a cell, living organism, and within the context of human populations. Genetics has created several domains, including molecular genetics, epigenetics and human genetics. Genetic processes work in conjunction with living organisms and information that affects growth and behaviour, often referred to as environmental anti-aging. An old example is two seeds of genetically modified maize, one stored in a cool climate and the other in a dry place. Although the average length of two varieties of corn may be genetically modified, the one on the dry land only grows to be half the height of the temperate climate due to the lack of water and nutrients in its area. When cells divide, their entire genome is copied and each daughter cell inherits one copy. This process, called mitosis, is an easy birth process and is the basis for abnormal reproduction. Asexual reproduction can also occur in multicellular organisms, producing offspring that receive their genome from a single parent. Descendants similar to their parents are called clones. Although genes contain all the information that a living organism uses to function, the environment plays a key role in determining the final phenotypes that a living organism exhibits. The term nature and growth refers to this interconnected relationship. The phenotype of an organism depends on the interaction of genes with the environment. An interesting example is the color of a Siamese cat coat. In this case, the cat's body temperature plays a key role. The genetic code of the black-haired cat, thus producing cat hair cells produces the protein cells that cause black hair. But these proteins that produce black hair that are sensitive to temperature and denature in high temperatures, fail to produce black hair color in areas where the cat has a high body temperature. However, in low temperatures, the protein structure is stable and produces a normal black hair color. Protein is often used in cold skin areas such as the legs, ears, tail, and face so that the cat has dark hair on its edges. Nature plays a major role in the effects of human genetic phenylketonuria. Altered gene phenylketonuria disrupts the body's ability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, causing toxic accumulation of centralized molecules, which, in turn, cause severe symptoms of progressive mental retardation and fainting. However, if a person with phenylketonuria changes following a strict diet that avoids this amino acid, it remains normal and healthy. The most common way to determine how genes and environment contribute to a phenotype involves studying the same twins as siblings, or more siblings. The same siblings are genetically similar as they come from the same zygote. Meanwhile, the twin brothers are very different from each other like normal siblings. By comparing how often those illnesses occur in pairs of identical twins and how often they occur in pairs of twin brothers, scientists can determine whether the disorder is due to genetic or biological causes. One notable example involved the study of Genain quadruplets, which were similar to the four twins diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, such studies do not make the difference between the genetic makeup and the natural factors that affect embryonic development. The differences in genetic expression are particularly evident among multicellular organisms, in which all cells belong to the same genome but have very different structures and behaviors due to the expression of different genetic sets. All cells in a multicellular organism come from a single cell, are divided into different cell types in response to external and intercellular signals and gradually develop different genetic expression patterns to form different behaviors. Since no single gene is responsible for the development of structures within multicellular organisms, these patterns arise from complex interactions between multiple cells. Although geneticists initially studied the biological diversity of living things, researchers began to focus on the genetic code of a particular organism. The fact that important research is already available of a given organism may encourage new researchers to choose to continue research, and eventually a few biological models will form the basis for more genetic research. Common research topics in the genetic model include the study of gene control and the involvement of genes in the development of cancer.

Acknowledgement

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Conflict of Interest

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