All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Integrated Circuits: Revolutionizing the Electronics Industry

Justice Francis*

Department of Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering, Yunnan Normal University, Yunnan Province, China

*Corresponding Author:
Justice Francis
Department of Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering, Yunnan Normal University, Yunnan Province, China

Received:  01-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JOMS-22-67533; Editor assigned: 03-Aug-2022, PreQC No. JOMS-22-67533 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Aug-2022, QC No. JOMS-22-67533; Revised: 24-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JOMS-22-67533 (R); Published: 31-Aug-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2321-6212.10.S2.002

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Material Sciences


A set of electronic circuits on one compact, flat piece of semiconductor material, typically silicon, is known as an integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit. On the chip, there are a lot of integrated miniaturised transistors and other electronic parts. As a result, circuits can include many more transistors because they are orders of magnitude faster, cheaper, and smaller than those made of discrete components. Because of their ability for mass production, dependability, and modular approach to integrated circuit design, ICs have quickly replaced discrete transistor designs. Today, almost all electronic devices employ Integrated Circuits (ICs), which have completely changed the electronics industry.

Technological advances in semiconductor device production have enabled very-large-scale integration. A modern chip may have several billions of transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail. Since chips were first developed in the 1960s, their size, speed, and capacity have advanced dramatically. This growth has been made possible by technological advancements that allow more and more transistors to fit on chips of the same size. The computer chips of today have millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of yesterday thanks to these advancements, which roughly follow Moore's law. Compared to discrete circuits, ICs have three key advantages: size, cost, and performance. Because the chips are manufactured as a whole using photolithography rather than being built one transistor at a time, the size and cost are small. In addition, packed integrated circuits utilise a lot less material than discrete circuits. The IC's components switch quickly and require relatively little power due to their compact size and close closeness, which boosts performance. The primary drawbacks of ICs are their high initial design costs and the substantial capital expenditures required to build factories. Due to their high initial cost, ICs can only be produced in large quantities profitably. An expensive integrated circuit's design and development typically cost several tens of millions of dollars. In order to spread the Non-Recurring Engineering (NRE) costs over many millions of production units, it is only economically feasible to build integrated circuit devices in large quantities.

Modern semiconductor chips are too complicated to be hand-designed; they contain billions of components. Software tools are crucial for the designer. A group of software tools for designing electronic systems, including integrated circuits, is known as Electronic Design Automation (EDA), also known as Electronic Computer-Aided Design (ECAD). Engineers employ the tools in a design flow to create, test, and evaluate whole semiconductor devices.

The chemical elements of the periodic table's semiconductors were chosen as the most likely candidates to make up a solid-state vacuum tube. The materials were methodically investigated in the 1940s and 1950s, starting with copper oxide, moving on to germanium, then silicon. Although some III-V compounds from the periodic table, such as gallium arsenide, are utilized for specialized applications including LEDs, lasers, solar cells, and the fastest integrated circuits, monocrystalline silicon still serves as the primary substrate for ICs today. It took several years to develop techniques for crystallizing semiconducting materials with few flaws.

The majority of applications use mono-crystal silicon wafers; in some cases, alternative semiconductors, including gallium arsenide, are used. Not all of the wafer needs to be silicon. Photolithography is used to identify various substrate regions that will be doped, have polysilicon, insulators, or metal tracks placed on them. Dopants are impurities that are purposefully added to a semiconductor in order to modify its electrical characteristics. The act of introducing dopants to a semiconductor material is known as doping.