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Photovoltaic Systems in Energy Generation

Roderick Harrison*

Department of Materials Chemistry, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France

*Corresponding Author:
Roderick Harrison
Department of Materials Chemistry,
University of Poitiers,

Received: 07-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JOMS-22-82497; Editor assigned: 09-Nov-2022, PreQC No. JOMS-22-82497 (PQ); Reviewed: 23-Nov-2022, QC No. JOMS-22-82497; Revised: 30-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JOMS -22-82497 (R); Published: 07-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2321-6212.10.8.005

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A photodiode is a light-sensitive semiconductor diode. It produces current when it absorbs photons. A photodiode's packaging allows light, infrared, ultraviolet, or X-ray radiation to reach the sensitive area of the device. There can be optical filters or lenses in the package. To enhance response time, devices made specifically for use as photodiodes use a PIN junction rather than a p-n junction. As the surface area of the photodiode rises, the response time often decreases. Photodiodes are made to function in reverse bias. A large area photodiode is a solar cell that produces electric solar power.

In scientific and industrial equipment, photodiodes are used to measure light intensity, as a measure of property like density of smoke. Data encoded on an infrared beam, as in home remote controls, can be received by a photodiode. In order to transmit signals across circuits without a direct metallic connection, photodiodes can be utilized to create an optocoupler. This allows isolation from high voltage differences. A p-n junction or PIN structure is a photodiode. An electron-hole pair is produced in a diode when a photon with sufficient energy impacts the device.

These carriers are swept away from the junction by the depletion region's built-in electric field if the absorption takes place there or one diffusion length distant from it. A photocurrent is created as a result of the movement of holes toward the anode and electrons toward the cathode. The photocurrent and the dark current, which are combined to make up the total current flowing through the photodiode, must be kept to a minimum in order to enhance the sensor's sensitivity.

Photocurrent enters the anode through a short circuit to the cathode in photovoltaic mode (zero bias). A voltage builds up in the direction that forward biases the diode, that is, the anode is positive with respect to the cathode, if the circuit is closed or has load impedance constraining the photocurrent out of the device.

A forward current will either completely or partially consume the photocurrent if the circuit is shorted or the impedance is low. The photovoltaic effect, which serves as the foundation for solar cells and is just a large area photodiode, is utilized in this mode. The solar cell will be operated at a voltage that results in the least amount of forward current relative to the photocurrent for maximum power generation. The diode is reverse biased in photoconductive mode, meaning that the cathode is driven positively relative to the anode. The added reverse bias widens the depletion layer, which decreases the junction's capacitance and expands the area with an electric field that will encourage rapid electron collection. As a result, the response time is shortened. Without significantly altering the photocurrent, the reverse bias also generates dark current. The photoconductive mode, despite being faster, can have greater electronic noise because to dark current or avalanche effects.

The Johnson-Nyquist noise of the load resistance in a typical circuit sometimes takes precedence since the leakage current of a good PIN diode is so low (1 nA). A light-sensitive transistor is called a phototransistor. The bipolar phototransistor, a popular type of phototransistor, is essentially a bipolar transistor enclosed in a transparent shell to allow light to reach the base-collector junction. The photodiode current is increased by the transistor's current gain as photons in the base-collector junction produce electrons that are injected into the base (or hfe). The phototransistor changes into a photodiode when only the base and collector leads are connected.