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Physicochemical Analysis of Herbal Lipsticks Developed using Natural Colour Pigment

Prabhu K Halakatti*, Anita Desai, Rajashri Patted, Ashwini Babaladi, Manoj Jakkanagoudar, Naveen Balehosur, Shrikant Patil, Mahantesh Patted, Shrinivas Danti, Naveen Mulabeli

Department of Pharmaceutics, Hanagal shri Kumareshwar College of Pharmacy Bagalkote, Karnataka, India

*Corresponding Author:
Prabhu K. Halakatti
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Hanagal shri Kumareshwar College of Pharmacy Bagalkote,

Received: 04-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JPPS-22-79063; Editor assigned: 07-Nov-2022, PreQC No. JPPS-22-79063 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Nov-2022, QC No. JPPS-22-79063; Revised: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JPPS-22-79063 (R); Published: 31-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.4172/2320-1215.12.1.002

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Background: There are many lipstick formulations available in the market developed with synthetic colorants but this particular research was made use of natural pigment as the colorant.

Aim: The present study was focused to develop and evaluate herbal lipstick containing natural pigment.

Methodology: Natural pigment was extracted from Tamarindus indica red with methanol as solvent using trituration method. Lipstick formulations were developed using moulding method and coded from F1 to F5. Thus developed lipsticks were evaluated for organoleptic parameters, surface anomalies, size and shape analysis, breaking point, melting point, irritation test, pH analysis, solubility profile, color imparting test and perfume stability test.

Results: Thus developed lipsticks were shown good results for all the evaluations whereas color was found to be dark maroon to light maroon. Among all the developed formulations F2 shows good color imparting property. pH of all the formulations were found to be neutral at 6.9 to 7 pH. All the lipsticks were partially soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in aqueous media. Lipsticks are nonirritant and similar size in diameter and length with shape of smooth rounded tip. They had moderate melting point of 60°C and breaking point was ranging from 70 grams to 120 grams. Formulation F5 shows maximum breaking strength. They hold good perfume stability property. Conclusion: Lipsticks were successfully developed from natural pigment with good color and melting point. Since all the evaluations shown good results this natural pigment can be utilized for developing lipsticks in large scale.


Herbal lipstick; Lipstick; Natural pigment; Tamarindus indica red; Lipstick evaluations


Lips are one of the most attractive features of the face. The skin of our lips is very thin and delicate. It needs to be taken extra care. Drying of our lips can make cracked and flaky. Use of certain products on your lips can help to regain moisture. They not only prevent your lips from drying and cracking but also give certain shinning on the lips which makes them look attractive than ever before. A lip care product will retain lips moisture and keep them hydrated and refreshing and irresistible. They enhance the quality of the lips. So it is very important to use the right type of products on lips that will not harm them [1]. There are different types of lip care products available in the market that can make a look of stunning. Pure lipcare products are made with natural, vegan and plant based ingredients various lip care products were shown inFigure 1.


Figure 1: Lip care products.

Types of lip care products:

•Tinted lip balm

•Lip gloss

•Semi matte lipstick

•Cream lipstick

•Lip oil

•Lip liner

•Lip scrub

Introduction to lipstick: Lipstick is the cosmetic product containing the pigments, oils, waxes and emollients that apply colour, texture and protection to the lips. Lipstick is used to impart an attractive colour and glossy moisture appearance to the lips. Any of the preparations used for the beauty treatments for lip makeup known as sticks or by the common name lipsticks. A lipstick brightens the women’s smile and it provides hydration to lips and lipsticks having many advantages. It will protect from the dryness and cracking. Herbal lipstick is cosmetic product containing many of ingredients from plant origin only. These lipstick preparations do not cause any damage to the lips and have no side effects. Many types and colours of lipstick are available in day to day life [2-4].

Composition of lipsticks

Waxes: Waxes are thermoplastic materials which are solids at room temperature but melt without decomposition. It provides structure to lipstick. Which is also plays an important role as it forms protective layer on the lips [5,6].

Examples: Beeswax, Chinese wax, lanolin, shellac wax, ozokerite and candelilla wax.

Oils: The oil mixture is required to blend properly with waxes to provide a suitable film when applied on lip. Also acts as dispensing agent for insoluble pigments.
Example: Castor oil, paraffin oil, isopropyl myristate, butyl stearate, olive oil, coconut oil etc.

Colouring agents: Colour of the lipstick is most important from commercial and appearance point of view. Colour which is been used in the lipstick preparation will be appear on lips upon application and is been responsible for the attractive appearance of lips. Carmine was widely used as colorant in lipstick formulations.

Lipstick colours are available in two types:

•Soluble dyes: Example: Fluorescein, Eosin.

•Insoluble dyes: Example: Barium, Alluminium.

Preservatives: Preservatives are used in lipstick formulations to prevent the contamination and microbial growth. Preservatives are also helps to increase the shelf life of the formulations.

Examples: Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben.

Antioxidants: Antioxidants are the agents which prevent the oxidation process during the storage. These are also added to the lipstick to prevent rancidity.

Example: BHT, BHA.

Fragrance: Fragrance is used for imparting pleasant odour to the lipstick and to mask the smell of other ingredients.

Example: Rose essence, strawberry essence.

Advantages of lipsticks

It provides beauty to lips which directly enhance face appearance. It protects and moisturizes the lip. It defines the lip and brightens smile provided you to choose the right shade. It hydrates the lip. It enhances facial appearance and gives gorgeous looks to face. The medicated lipstick protect lip from dryness and even useful for antifungal treatment. It also protect from sores and swelling [7].

Introduction to Tamarindus indica red 8

Botanical name: Tamarindus indica red

Source: It is obtained from fresh pulp of Tamarindus indica linn.

Family: Leguminosae

Geographical source: Tamarind is originated in Madagascar and now it has been extensively cultivated in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Central American countries.

Phytoconstituents: Tartaric acid, Malic acid, Oxalic acid, Vitamins (C, E, K, Folate) Carbohydrates, Water and Fibers (pectin).

Therapeutic applications: It is used as anti-fungal, astringent, anti–inflammatory, anti-septic, anti-bacterial agent. In day today life even tamarind was used as part of cooking ingredient which imparts sour taste to food. Tamarindus indica red fruit was shown in Figure 2.


Figure 2: Tamarindus indica red fruit.

Other benefits: Fruit pulp used as gentle laxative. It improves appetite. Decoction of dried fruit is taken orally for fevers. It is known to restore sensation in paralysis. Tamarind bark is used as tonic, lotions and to relieve sores, ulcers rashes [8].


Chemicals and reagents

The excipients carnauba wax, white bees wax, cetyl alcohol and liquid paraffin were purchased from SDFCL Mumbai. Cocoa butter, lanolin, castor oil and isopropyl myristate were procured from Loba chemie Mumbai. Natural pigment was extracted from Tamarindus indica red fruit pulp. Strawberry essence was procured from Manju chemicals (p) LTD, Chennai and Vitamin e obtained from Abbot India. All the chemicals used are of analytical grade.


Extraction of colour pigment from Tamarindus indica red: Red tamarind fruits were collected from local farm and the fresh ripen fruits were washed with tap water twice to remove the dust present on the peel of the fruits. Then the peel was scarped and pulp was collected in beaker. Accurately weighed 100 grams of pulp was placed in mortar and 300 ml of methanol was added to it. The pulp was triturated until it becomes smooth. The whole mixture in the mortar was then filtered using muslin cloth. The filtrate was concentrated by keeping it in a hot air oven for 3 hours at 40℃. Then the concentrated mass was used as the natural colouring pigment in development of lipstick formulations [9].

Development of lipstick formulations by moulding method: The lipstick formulations were developed using moulding method. The formulation chart was designed by varying the wax concentrations and formulations were depicted in Table 1. For this initially the waxes like white bees wax, carnauba wax were accurately weighed and taken in a china dish. To the wax mixture accurately weighed lanolin, cetyl alcohol and cocoa butter were added and mixed thoroughly. After a while the mixture of accurately weighed castor oil, liquid paraffin and isopropyl myristate were added. The above mixture was kept on hot water bath at 45℃ for 5 minute. After 5 minutes the wax and emollients were melted and it forms oily solution. To this solution required quantity of essence, antioxidant and natural colouring pigment was added and stirred well. Then whole solution was poured into lipstick moulds and mould was kept in refrigerator for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes lipsticks were collected and used for further evaluation parameters [10-13].

Si no. Ingredients
Formulation code
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 Carnauba wax 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
2 White bees wax 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
3 Cocoa butter 7 6.5 6 5.5 5
4 Lanolin 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5
5 Castor oil 15 15 15 15 15
6 Isopropyl myristate 3 3 3 3 3
7 Cetyl alcohol 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
8 Liquid paraffin 3 3 3 3 3
9 Natural pigment 2 2 2 2 2
10 Strawberry essence 1 1 1 1 1
11 Vitamin E 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Table 1. Composition of lipstick formulations.

Evaluation of lipsticks

Organoleptic evaluations: The prepared lipstick formulations were evaluated for organoleptic parameters like its colour, odour, texture using sensory organs and the observations were reported as same [14-16].

Surface anomalies: Surface anomalies test was carried out for all the formulations in order to identify any kind of crystal formation, contamination or rough surface development on the lipstick formulations and the observations were reported [17].

Skin irritation test: This evaluation was carried out to ensure the irritation property of formulation. The lipsticks were applied on skin of volunteers and it is been left for 10 minutes and the observation was reported [18-21].

pH of the formulation: The pH of formulated herbal lipsticks was determined using pH meter. The average of 3 readings was taken and the pH was reported [22-24].

Size and shape analysis: Size and shape of developed lipstick formulations was carried out using vernier caliper. The shape was reported and length and width of lipsticks were determined by placing lipstick horizontally and vertically within jaws of vernier caliper and the readings from the digital screen was taken thrice to get average value [25].

Solubility of lipsticks: Solubility of lipstick formulations were carried out using different solvents of varying polarity for this ethanol, water, chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether were used and solubility profile was reported as completely soluble, partially soluble and soluble [26].

Colour imparting test: Colour imparting test was carried out to ensure the dispersion of colour from the lipstick formulation. For this evaluation 1 lipstick from each formulation was taken and rubbed gently on the paper. The extent of colour dispersion was reported as poor, good or excellent. The observations were reported as same [27].

Melting point: Melting point of lipstick was a major parameter for this little quantity of lipstick formulation was placed in test tube and a thermometer was immersed in it. Then it was clamped tightly to burette stand. The whole assembly was immersed in a beaker containing water which is placed on a heating mantle. The temperature was increased gradually and at particular temperature at which the lipstick gets melted is been reported as its melting point. The average of 3 readings were taken and mean value is been reported [28,29].

Breaking point: Breaking point evaluation was carried out to determine the strength of lipstick. The lipstick was held horizontally in a socket inch away from the edge of support. The weight was placed using thread in position to vertical direction towards the gravity. Then the weight is been gradually increased by a specific value (10 gm) at specific interval of 30 second and weight at which breaks was considered as the breaking point. The average values of three readings were taken to avoid errors [30,31].

Perfume stability: The perfume stability of lipstick formulation was evaluated periodically at interval of 15 days and 30 days and the presence of perfume was reported [32].


Extraction of colour pigment from Tamarindus indica red

The colour pigment from Tamrindus indica red fruit was obtained by trituration followed by evaporation method. The dark red natural pigment from Tamridus indica red was obtained and stored in a refrigerator for further lipstick development process. The extracted pigment was shown in Figure 3.


Figure 3: Extraction of natural pigment from Tamarindus indica red.

Development of lipstick formulations using natural pigment

Using different concentrations of oils and waxes 5 different formulations chart was developed and accordingly the quantities of each ingredient were taken and lipsticks were developed using moulding method. From each formulation 4 lipsticks were developed and evaluated for various parameters. The developed lipsticks were shown in Figure 4.


Figure 4: Developed lipstick formulations.

Organoleptic evaluation: Developed lipstick formulations were evaluated for its colour, odour and texture and the observed characteristics were depicted in Table 2. All the formulations poses maroon colour of different intensity and pleasant odour along with smooth texture.

Sl. no. Parameter Formulation code
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 Colour Dark maroon Maroon Light maroon Light maroon Light maroon
2 Odour Pleasant Pleasant Pleasant Pleasant Pleasant
3 Texture Smooth Smooth Smooth Smooth Smooth

Table 2. Organoleptic evaluation of lipstick formulations.

Surface anomalies: Surface anomalies test was carried out for all the formulations in which formulations from F1 to F5 shown absence of crystal formation, contamination and there is even distribution of colouring pigment was observed. The results were depicted in Table 3. Parameter Formulation code
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1. Crystal formation No No No No No
2. Contamination No No No No No
3. Color distribution Even Even Even Even Even

Table 3. Surface anomalies evaluation results.

Skin irritation test: Skin irritation test was carried out in volunteers. The skin was observed after 10 minutes of applying lipsticks. It was concluded that there is no any kind of itching, redness, swelling or irritation is been observed in volunteers. All the formulations are free from irritation upon topical applications.

pH of the formulation: pH of all the formulations were evaluated using digital pH meter whereas all the formulations shown near to neutral pH values, it was ranging from 6.8 to 7.0. So the extent of pH difference will not cause any harm on the lips. The results were depicted in Table 4.

SI. no. Formulation code pH
Mean ± SD
1 F1 6.9 ± 0.1
2 F2 7.0 ± 0.3
3 F3 6.8 ± 0.1
4 F4 6.9 ± 0.2
5 F5 7.0 ± 0.1

Table 4. pH of the formulations.

Size and shape analysis: Shape of all the lipstick formulations were observed to be rounded smooth tip structure and the length of the lipsticks were ranging from 39.34 mm to 40.92 mm and diameter of lipsticks were ranging from 10.30 mm to 11.00 mm. The lipstick dimensions were depicted in Figure 5 and the observations of length and width were depicted in Table 5.


Figure 5: Determination of lipstick dimensions. Parameter Formulation code
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 Shape Rounded smooth tip Rounded smooth tip Rounded smooth tip Rounded smooth tip Rounded smooth tip
2 Length (mm) 39.80 ± 0.1 39.79 ± 0.3 40.92 ± 0.4 39.80 ± 0.2 39.34 ± 0.4
3 Diameter (mm) 10.30 ± 0.1 10.82 ± 0.2 10.94 ± 0.2 10.95 ± 0.4 11.00 ± 0.2

Table 5. Size and Shape evaluation of lipsticks.

Solubility of lipsticks: The developed lipstick formulations were evaluated for its solubility profile and the results were depicted in Table 6. Since the lipsticks contains high amount of waxes and oils these are insoluble in water and partially soluble in ethanol, petroleum ether and methanol. Solvent formulation code
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 Ethanol Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble
2 Water Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble
3 Petroleum ether Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble
4 Methanol Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble Partially soluble

Table 6. Solubility profile of lipstick formulations.

Colour imparting test: Extent of colour imparting property of lipstick formulations were evaluated using a white paper. Upon gentle pressure formulation F1 and F2 shown very good colour imparting property and formulation F3 shown slightly less and F4,F5 formulations shown least colour imparting property. The colour imparting property of all the formulations was shown in Figure 6.


Figure 6: Colour imparting test for lipstick formulations.

Melting point: Melting point of all the lipstick formulations was found in between 60-61℃. Thus all the formulations poses typical lipstick property. Moderate melting property of lipstick prevents its melting during storage and promotes ease of application on lips. The melting point results were depicted in Table 7. The melting point assembly was represented in Figure 7.

Formulation F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
Melting point (0C) 60 ± 2 61 ± 1 60 ± 2 61 ± 1 60 ± 2
Breaking point (gms) 70 ± 0 80 ± 00 100 ± 00 110 ± 00 120 ± 00

Table 7. Melting point and breaking point of lipsticks


Figure 7: Melting point assembly of lipsticks.

Breaking point: Breaking point of lipsticks was ranging from 70 grams to 120 grams. As the wax content in the formulation increases there is frequent increase in breaking strength is been observed. Formulation F5 shows maximum breaking point and formulation F1 shown least breaking strength because of lesser amount of wax content. The breaking strength results were depicted in Table 7. Breaking point assembly was depicted in Figure 8.


Figure 8: Breaking point determination of lipsticks.

Perfume stability: Perfume stability of lipsticks was carried out at 15th and 30th day. All formulations shown good perfume retention property at the end of 30th day and the results were depicted in Table 8.

Days F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
15th Day Good Good Good Good Good
30th Day Good Good Good Good Good

Table 8. Perfume stability of lipstick formulations.


Considering the extensive use and importance of lip care cosmetics in day today life the present work was designed and developed to prepare and evaluate the lipstick formulations using natural colour pigment. The aim of present work was to focus on the naturally occurring colour pigments and incorporating them into some cosmetics to avoid the synthetic colours to some extent. This could be helpful to safeguard our external health from the harmful side effects. After completion of the present project work some conclusions are briefed. Colour pigment was successfully extracted from Red tamarind fruit pulp using trituration and methanolic extraction method. Concentrated natural pigment extract was tested for its colour imparting property prior to development of lipsticks. The lipstick formulation chart was developed considering varying the concentration of waxes and some emollients. The natural pigment concentration was kept constant in all the formulations to validate effect of wax concentration and ratio on colour imparting property. The lipstick formulations were prepared by moulding method and formulations were coded from F1to F5. Thus developed lipstick formulations were evaluated for various parameters. In the organoleptic evaluations it was concluded that developed lipstick formulations were varying from dark maroon colour to light maroon colour. This is because of difference in wax concentrations. Among all formulation F2 matches with the colour of tamarind extract. All the lipstick formulations were shown smooth texture and very good fragrance. While validating surface anomalies it is been concluded that there is no crystal formation, uneven colour distribution and contamination. pH of all the lipsticks were found to be neutral such that there will not be any kind of discomfort will be observed on topical application. From size and shape analysis it was concluded that developed lipsticks were in shape of rounded smooth tip and diameter of about 10 mm and length of about 40 mm. This could be beneficial in developing them into commercial scale. All the formulations show similar dimensions. From solubility studies it was concluded that lipsticks were partially soluble in organic solvents and completely insoluble in aqueous media. From colour imparting test it was concluded that formulation F1 and F2 shown excellent colour imparting property. Among these two F2 shown similar colour as that of tamarind extract. From melting point analysis it was concluded that all the formulations ranging from 60℃ to 61℃ hence it is been aid in storage at higher temperature zones and ease in application. Breaking point analysis was confirmed that higher the wax concentration harder will the lipstick formulation. So F5shows maximum breaking strength and F1 shows least values. Perfume stability test confirmed that the formulations retained the fragrance for longer duration. Even though the study was carried out for 30 days there is no change in fragrance was observed. Final conclusion for the present study is that lipsticks can be successfully developed using natural pigment extract and since all the ingredients were from natural sources it is been considered as safer lip care cosmetic.


Authors are thankful to staff members and PG scholars of department of pharmaceutics and principal, Hanagal Shri Kumareshwar college of pharmacy Bagalkote for their support throughout the research work.