1 Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences Anchor University, Lagos
2 Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences
Received date: 03/08/2020 Accepted date: 15/08/2020 Published date: 25/08/2020
COVID-19; Automation; Policy; Public Policy.
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Social Sciences
This study examines the overly debated and controversial issue of environmental degradation in Ogoniland, an oil rich community in Niger Delta Nigeria, with specific reference to Gokana Local Government Area as a case study. Due to a combination of factors, this area has been subjected to serious ecological crisis and a severe distortion of the natural environment and its bio-diversities including Fauna and Flora. The clean-up programme of the United Nations Environmental Projects (UNEP) in this area notwithstanding, the outcome has been far from impressive thus suggesting a major setback in the United Nations’ agenda for the areas. Thus, this study examines the Multidimensional variables and factors to the environmental crisis in Ogoniland within the framework of state, non-state and community actors. Methodologically, this work adopts a secondary, qualitative and descriptive method of data collection and analysis. The research method used in this study is based on the analysis and interpretation of secondary data collected from online sources and analysis of past works. Hence, secondary data will be analyzed using the content analysis technique. Drawing from the Critical Moment Analysis of political ecology and the heterodox political ecology approach, the study concludes that the impasse regarding Ogoni land environmental cleanup is not just the lack of political will but also nongovernmental factors and activities that have cashed in on the situation in the Niger Delta to drive and pursue personal or corporate goals and interest.
The Nigeria state and the Oil Producing Economy
Oil assets exploration in Nigeria are regularly dated far back to 1908. This was the point at which the German surveyors for the Nigerian Bitumen Corporation started the prospect for a Tar Sand deposit inside the South–Western Nigeria (Aniefiok, Udo, et al, 2013). The flare-up of the planet War I in 1914 carried these spearheading endeavors to a sudden end.
Exploration started again in 1938, when Shell D'Arcy (a consortium of Iranian company and Royal Dutch Shell) was conceded an exclusive concessionary right over the nation. In any case, war II (1939-1945) ended the underlying oil exploration activitiess by Shell D'Arcy. Oil exploration inside the Nigeria's Niger Delta continued in 1946 after war II and Shell D'Arcy bored assortment of oil exploratory wells in 1951. At the early stage, Shell D'Arcy (later Shell–British Petroleum) delighted in a whole monopoly business model of oil exploration for a considerable time (1938-1955). From that point, Mobil Producing (Nigeria) Ltd, an auxiliary of American Socony–Mobil company , acquired permit to searched for oil and initiated activities in Nigeria in 1955 under the name Mobil Exploration Nigeria Incorporated (which was later joined as Mobil Producing Nigeria on June 16, 1969).
The first commercial oil discovery within the Niger Delta was affirmed at Oloibiri field in January 1956 by Shell D'Arcy (later Shell–British Petroleum) and a subsequent oil field was later found at Afam (Haack, Sundararaman, et al, 200). In February 1958, Shell British Petroleum (presently Royal Dutch Shell) began sending out oil delivered from Oloibiri and Afam oil field at Port Harcourt(Pearson, 1970). the tremendous Bomu oil field, which has assessed extreme recuperation of 0.311 billion of barrels (BB) of oil and a total of 0.608 billion of barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) including gas, was found southeast of Port Harcourt-Rivers State in 1958 (Vassiliou, 2009).
The oil sector started to assume a significant job in forming the Nigerian economy and political predetermination of the nation inside the mid 1960s. At the point when Nigeria turned into a free country on 1 October 1960, Shell–BP started to give up its acreage and its exploration licenses were changed over into prospecting licenses that permitted development and production (Bamberg, 2000). Following dominance of the Nigerian economy by petroleum sector, the only concession policy was abandoned and exclusive exploration right was introduced to encourage other multinational oil companies aimed toward accelerating petroleum exploration and production. Other global oil companies joined oil and gas exploration in Nigeria and these incorporate Texaco Overseas Nigeria Petroleum Company Unlimited in 1961, Amoseas in 1961, Gulf company in 1961 (presently Chevron), Société Africaine des Pétroles (SAFRAP) in 1962 (which later became Elf Nigeria Limited in 1974), Tennessee Nigeria Limited (Tenneco) in 1962, Azienda Generale Italiana Petroli (AGIP) in 1962, ENIin 1964, Philips company in 1964 and Pan Ocean Oil Corporation in 1972(Bamberg, 2000).
A large portion of those worldwide oil companies recorded extensive accomplishments in oil and gas exploration and creation in both inland and seaward fields inside the Niger Delta.
The government of Nigeria discovered its Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) Inspectorate in 1970 and Nigeria highlighted participation of the organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1971(Genova, 2007). The essential national company , the Nigerian National Oil Corporation (NNOC), was made in 1971 and it later turned into the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) in 1977. to require control of the nation's oil industry, Nigeria nationalized BP's holding totally in 1979, and Shell–BP became Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC) (Genova, 2007). Albeit a few other oil companies have participated in exploration and creation over the previous decades, SPDC has the most significant grounds inside the nation from which it delivers nearly 39 percent of the country's oil and remains the fundamental maker inside the Nigeria's oil industry. The Niger Delta area is lavishly invested with 31 goliath oil and gas fields and each ha an expected extreme recoverable oil of very 500 million barrels and delivers in more than 1 million barrels every outing of the country's absolute creation of about 2.1 million barrels for every day (Obaje, 2009). predictable with Vassiliou 2009, 17 of monster oil and gas creation fields are found seaward and a couple of the models incorporate Bomu, Oso, Ubit, Assan, Meren, Abo, Bonga, Bonga Southwest and Agbami, and so forth. Bonga and Bonga Southwest were found in 1996 and 2001, separately and are worked by an endeavor drove by SPDC . Right now, there are more than 18 global oil companies which are engaged with oil and gas exploration and creation inside the Niger Delta  and in this manner the significant players incorporate Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, ENI/Agip, Total Fina Elf and US– based Chevron Texaco
The Oil and Gas Dilemma in Ogoniland
The occurrence of oil spillage in Ogoniland are frequently followed to as far on the grounds that the 1950s. From the discoveries of autonomous specialists, an expected 9-13 million barrels of oil are spilled inside the Niger Delta since penetrating started in 1958 and around 7,000 spills have happened somewhere in the range of 1970 and 2000 (Baird, 2010). Broad oil spillage was accounted for close Ebubu–Ochani region (Ogoni people group) in Gokana government Area in Rivers State in 1971 from an oil conveyance pipeline off an oil stream station(Baird, 2010). The amount of oil spilled could not be evaluated due to intra-nation common turmoil and cremation of the spill on soil surfaces came about inside the development of colossal tar tangle inside 0.25 km span of the reason source (Ekundayo,1995). The effects of oil exploration and creation in a large portion of the oil–delivering host networks inside the Niger Delta haven't been very much surveyed and overseen over the previous decades. for example , oil exploration and creation (1950-1990) in Ogoni people group prompted common distress and additionally clashes over the natural pollution identified with oil advancement and along these lines the essential remuneration for the affected networks. inside the mid 1990's, the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC) reduced oil penetrating activitiess and later stop creation tasks in Ogoni people group without complete decommissioning of their offices. For as long as 15 years, oil related tainting has happened due spillages from matured exhausting hardware and frameworks. Albeit new instances of defilement are seen over the previous years, the neighborhood occupants in Ogoni people group have endeavored to influence oil tainting in order to utilize polluted land for agribusiness and private purposes. In 2006, the government of Nigeria propelled the appraisal to spot , assess and limit the prompt and long haul natural, human wellbeing, financial effects of oil defilement in Ogoni people group(UNEP,2011). It is generally realized that prime groupings of natural and inorganic contaminants in soil condition frequently cause sullying of groundwater, debasement of land, present huge unfavorable impacts on human wellbeing and other biological receptors. Albeit compelling administration of sullied land is significant for dangers moderation, natural defilement identified with oil exploration and creation inside the Ogoni people group has not yet been tended to appropriately. Sullying of the controlled water sources by oil hydrocarbons and other natural contaminants might be a worldwide ecological concern. A few explorations are directed to guage oil sullying of groundwater inside the Niger Delta region(UNEP,2011). Anyakora and Coker, 2009, opine that the evaluation of the oil tainting danger on groundwater demonstrated that PAHs(Polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons) focuses extended from 1.92-40.47 μg l-1 and imperceptible degrees of high relative atomic mass PAHs are credited to their low tide dissolvability. The releases of oil hydrocarbon and oil sullied creation squanders in freshwater conditions and flooding of sleek squanders in tunnel pits during substantial downpours has effectsly affected soil and various different wellsprings of controlled waters. The oil hydrocarbon spills have brought about pollution of marine condition, fishing zones and drink sources, and permeation of oil hydrocarbon into the dirt causes tainting of groundwater springs. steady with Ayotamuno et al., groundwater defilement coming about because of the spillage of oil and refined oil based goods during extraction and preparing activities might be a genuine natural issue inside the Niger Delta district(Anyakora and Coker, 2009).
Groundwater assessment is progressively leaning toward a watershed approach because of enormous scope defilement, coming about because of urban turn of events, quick increment , and land use changes. Sullying of controlled water sources inside the Niger Delta have made the individuals to depend on penetrating borehole for refreshment , along these lines, the security of groundwater gracefully is significance to help relieve potential dangers identified with oil pollution. Considering the very actuality that ground water is one among most valuable characteristic assets across Africa, there's a necessity for broad selection of supportable improvement techniques for dangers moderation, successful comprehension of the hydrogeology and appropriation of microbial methodologies inside the administration of oil defilement of condition. As far in light of the fact that the Ogoni land and thusly the entire Niger Delta are concerned, all the oil extraction has brought are war, ailments, devastation of the land, water, and in this way the general public, beside the deficiency of social courtesies, abuse, and minimization of the individuals from past governments and oil companies
The literature on the Niger Delta features soil erosion, water pollution, oil spillage, soil toxification, and global warming as the outcomes of oil exploration in the area. Lawal and Ese (2012) as they would see it see that spills are under-announced, yet free gauge are that in any event 115,000 barrels (15,000) tons of oil are spilled into the delta every year, making the Niger Delta one of the most oil affected biological systems on the planet. As per UNDP Report (2006), natural corruption issues are of effective worry to networks in the Niger Delta as it is a significant reason for efficiency misfortunes. This is the fundamental motivation behind why oil and gas extraction sway on the Niger Delta has ramifications for the declining efficiency of the area which is prevalently founded on fisheries and other rural activitiess as cultivating, and wood business. In light of UNDP report, Opukri and Ibaba (2008) opine that oil production certainly declined environment disaster and has influenced Fishing and other agrarian activitiess in the area. Bisina (2004) saw that before the revelation of unrefined petroleum in 1958 at business amount, horticulture was the predominant control of the individuals of the Niger Delta area. As per him, oil exploration has kept coming about into what he named as environment obliteration: because of disregard and negative demeanor of the worldwide organizations in ecological administration in the region. He further saw that Agricultural yield has extraordinarily been hampered by close to consistent frequencies of oil exploration in the Niger Delta district of Nigeria (Bisina, 2001). This incorporates the production of significant staple food harvests, for example, cassava in the oil delivering locale of the nation. Bassey (2002) in his examination saw that since the disclosure of oil in Nigeria in 1956, the nation has been enduring the negative natural outcomes of oil advancement. He further affirm that in Nigeria, 32% of oil spillage is because of erosion of pipeline lines and big hauler mishaps, 28% is because of treachery and 21% are because of oil production tasks while 19% of the oil slicks is because of designing drills, powerlessness to viably control wells, disappointment of machines and insufficient consideration in stacking and offloading oil vessels. Regarding Bassey's feeling, Akpabio et.al (2010) expressed that oil industry has a colossal physical nearness in the natural touchy profoundly populated Niger Delta district of Nigeria. He canvas that all through the more than 50 years of oil production, this naturally beneficial district has endured broad living space corruptions, backwoods clearing, harmful releases, digging filling and critical adjustment by broad street and pipeline development from the oil business of specific worry in the Niger Delta Region and regular broad oil slick that have happened. He further opined that Oil exploration has caused a great deal of natural issues in the Region by corrupting most horticultural terrains in the zone and transformed heretofore profitable region into badlands with expanding soil small scale living beings and waning agrarian efficiency. As per him, ranchers have been compelled to desert their territory to look for non-existent elective methods for employment. Amphibian life has likewise been annihilated with the pollution of customary fishing grounds, intensifying craving and destitution in the fishing networks. Akpofure (2008) saw that the breakdown of the nearby economies, initiated by oil exploration, and different activitiess of the oil business has separated numerous from their occupations, without giving feasible other options. From his exploration, he sees that an expected 5 to 10% of Nigeria mangrove environments have been clear out either by settlement or oil. The rainforest which recently involved some 7,400km/ square of land is vanishing just as flares and coming about to corrosive downpour. Collier (2000) noticed that the results of natural corruption and pollution on horticultural production, biological system and human wellbeing are gigantic. Discoveries from past examinations especially, Ukpatu (2001), Omoweh (2001), Omorogbe (2003) and Nwabuenyi (2012) have indicated contrastingly that, ranch lands, fishing posts and asylums have been crushed in the influenced oil delivering networks through warm pollution by oil spillage. Gbadegesin (2000) in their examination on financial effect of oil pollution in Niger Delta environment expressed that raw petroleum misuse has had unfriendly natural impact on soils, woods and water bodies in have networks in the Niger Delta. Ranchers have lost their properties and are thusly compelled to emigrate to different networks looking for occupation applying extra weights on regular assets in such territory. Eteng (2010) noticed that it is vital that the staggering results of oil exploration in Niger Delta Region with its inevitable danger on both elevated and earthly environs are commensurate to an irreversible chain impact on both the bio-decent variety and security. It is seen in his examination that, unrefined petroleum exploration in populated territory influence rural activitiess, for example, cultivating, chasing just as fishing through tainting of the ground-water and soils which influences the economy and human wellbeing unfavorably. For Watt (2008), the level of harm to soils relies upon the degree of sullying. On the off chance that it is generally low, the dirt could be ransacked of activitiess particularly in view of the paraffinic idea of Nigeria oil. Nonetheless, where the pollution is progressively genuine soil become fruitless on the grounds that supplements fundamental to plant development become scant, while those that are poisonous to plant gotten increasingly accessible (Ijaiya, 2013). Base on Watts feeling, Worgu (2000), see that oil spillage in populated regions regularly spread-out over a wide region, devastating harvests through pollution of the underground water and soil.
The composition on the Niger Delta highlights soil breaking down, water pollution, oil spillage, soil degradation, and a risky climatic change as the results of oil examination in the zone. Lawal and Ese (2012) as they would see it see that spills are underdeclared, yet free check are that in any occasion 115,000 barrels (15,000) tons of oil are spilled into the delta consistently, making the Niger Delta one of the most oil influenced organic frameworks on the planet. According to UNDP Report (2006), common debasement issues are of successful concern to systems in the Niger Delta as it is a noteworthy purpose behind proficiency hardships. This is the key inspiration driving why oil and gas extraction influence on the Niger Delta has implications for the declining productivity of the territory which is predominantly established on fisheries and other country practices as developing, and wood business. Considering UNDP report, Opukri and Ibaba (2008) opine that oil production positively declined environment catastrophe and has affected Fishing and other agrarian activities in the territory. Bisina (2004) saw that before the disclosure of foul oil in 1958 at business sum, agriculture was the transcendent control of the people of the Niger Delta zone. According to him, oil examination has continued coming to fruition into what he named as environment pulverization: due to dismissal and negative air of the overall associations in biological organization in the locale. He further observed that Agricultural yield has exceptionally been hampered by near reliable frequencies of oil examination in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (Bisina, 2001). This consolidates the making of huge staple food harvests, for instance, cassava in the oil conveying district of the country. Bassey (2002) in his assessment saw that since the discovery of oil in Nigeria in 1956, the country has been persevering through the negative normal results of oil progression. He further assert that in Nigeria, 32% of oil spillage is a direct result of disintegration of pipeline lines and large hauler setbacks, 28% is a result of unfairness and 21% are a result of oil production assignments while 19% of the oil spills is a direct result of planning drills, weakness to feasibly control wells, dissatisfaction of machines and deficient thought in stacking and offloading oil vessels. As to's inclination, Akpabio et.al (2010) communicated that oil industry has a monster physical proximity in the characteristic sensitive significantly populated Niger Delta locale of Nigeria. He canvas that all through the over 50 years of oil production, this normally useful area has persevered through expansive living space pollutions, boondocks clearing, unsafe discharges, burrowing filling and basic alteration by wide road and pipeline advancement from the oil business of explicit concern in the Niger Delta Region and ordinary wide oil spill that have occurred. He further opined that Oil examination has caused a lot of common issues in the Region by debasing most plant landscapes in the zone and changed until now productive district into barren wilderness with growing soil little scope living creatures and winding down agrarian effectiveness.
Theoretical Explanations of Environmental Politics: Political ecology perspectives and their basic premises are used as the basis of the position of this work.
Neo-Marxist methodologies emerged con to objective neo-Malthusian perspectives on human/culture/nature complexities. Neo-Marxist methodologies got famous for their concurrent consideration regarding political and monetary components in explaining how material force (for example capital, riches, military influence) intervenes human/culture/nature relations (Biersack 2006: 3, 10; Bryant 1998: 80).
Neo-Malthusian perspectives are upheld an eco-shortage contention initially recommends by Malthus . For him, a natural 'emergency' emits when the pressure of a developing human populace surpasses the limit of an ecological framework to help it. Therefore, neo-Malthusian reasoning accentuates the need for social control to handle biological debasement, isolating it from the issues concerning the overall dissemination of intensity and merchandise (Robbins 2004: 7-8). While much bantered in populist developments for populace adjustment and control, this view likewise finds a reverberation during a pioneer way to deal with political nature that centers around effectiveness based thought of biological hazard relief.
Neo-Marxists likewise clarify ecological change inside the setting of underdevelopment and neediness by conveying one among three significant structures of thought: a center fringe reliance examination, worldwide entrepreneur framework/world framework hypothesis, and refinement disparity exploration. the overall entrepreneur framework, all contend, utilizes the 'laws of private enterprise' to guarantee benefit, progressively bringing about social and monetary divergence, political and social persecution and consequently the exhaustion of characteristic assets.
The individuals who utilize a state-driven center outskirts system, at times named the 'reliance' model in its different cycles and structures, consider the protracted auxiliary subjection of underdeveloped nations to the created world through trade relations, with maybe less have some expertise in the social relations of creation supporting those relations. there's likewise a classification imbalance approach, during which social relations of creation get need. Here the pressure is on benefit collection by the entrepreneur class to the detriment of the common habitat, regular assets, and different classes (Bryant 2001: 152-153). during this respect, Piers Blaikie, inside the financial aspects of disintegration in creating nations, contends that the industrialist class - to extricate surpluses from laborers and pastoralists to expand benefits – "… obliges land clients to require out of the dirt, fields and backwoods what they can't bear to put back in" ( Biersack 2006).
Aside from these three structures, an uncommon methodology called 'dynamic contextualization' developed inside the 1980s. This methodology interfaces the earth with advancement issues by breaking down the office of "non-place-based' powers resembles transnational companies over "place-based activitiess" including agribusiness and along these lines the like (Bryant 2001: 153).
Post-Marxist ways to deal with political biology incorporate women's activist and post-structuralist viewpoints. Elaboration lays on the reason that creation relations aren't simply implanted in capital; they're dug in "… a lot of non-monetary and nonentrepreneur relations" (Castree et al. 2001: 204). reliable with the scholars working during this territory, Marxist methodologies additionally overstate "… creation at the costs of different procedures cutting across sexual orientation, rank and ethnicity that at the same time mingle nature" (in the same place). to beat these overall shortcomings, women's activist researchers have analyzed force as far as its sexual orientation measurements, asserting that sex relations are crucial for clarifying human/culture/ nature relations and understanding the trouble of access to, and command over, assets and their protection. Following crafted by history specialists like Sara Berry, they uphold the significance of the family unit inside the scales used in political nature examination to elucidate results (Rocheleau 2008: 722). At the point when it includes understanding the human/nature/society nexus, the women's activist political environment viewpoint mulls over the settings of gendered information, gendered rights and obligations, and gendered governmental issues and grassroots activism (Rocheleau et al. 1996; Elmhirst 2011). It demands that sexual orientation contrasts aren't organically given, yet instilled in "...the social understanding of science and social develops of gender..." (Rocheleau et al. 1996). To put it plainly, the methodology is inclusionary, asking the need for coordinating and underwriting ladies as key on-screen characters (with regards to this article) in nature protection programs. While women's activist methodologies carry a significant measurement to political nature, one beforehand missing, they'll still "… will in general scale back the introduction of social decent variety to reified and cliché classifications." (Forsyth 2003: 84). this will cause an unnecessarily unbending examination, similar to that monetary reductionism to be found in extra conventional neo-Marxist methodologies. Under the effect of the development of post-structuralist ways to deal with force, subjectivity and ladies' office, and since of their consideration regarding the multidimensional subjectivities which standard the "de-focused subject" in breaking down condition and sexual orientation relations, "… 'sex' is destabilized as a focal systematic classification" (Elmhirst 2011). In any case, the rise of post-basic methodologies that have practical experience in the 'non-material' measurements of intensity has expanded the skyline of political biology. Analysts using such methodologies will in general dissect the developmental job (from their perspective) of the of 'office plan talk' nexus in advancing certain backwoods/nature preservation rehearses or ecological activities in creating countries.5 at the end of the day, human/culture/nature communications are broke down by meaning the job of talk and in this manner the legislative issues of the introduction of realities, in this manner de-accentuating the texture components of nature protection (e.g., those connected to private enterprise).
The United Nations Environment Program(UNEP) and the Nigerian Government on Ogoni Clean Up
The UNEP has begun the Ogoniland tidy up and reclamation of the natural effect of oil and gas industry activitiess since the late 1950s. Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) has defaulted on the entirety of its commitment to feasible keep the earth and environment unblemished causing huge socio-political strife and monetary misery inside the area that has denied local people their way of life and future for oil and gas riches that never profited them in any capacity. Seen the endeavors UNEP is making to clean up and agreeably therapeutic the disasters, Shell and each one companies included are currently obliged to deal with the natural guidelines that is relevant to them inside the USA or Europe. The government has gotten under way the one billion dollar UNEP tidy up and healing project, yet Shell isn't set up to shape a money related commitment to the program. Again and again with the shell conversations on the estimation of oil slick get together become redirected by a contention over the clarification for spills. Be that as it may, SPDC is answerable for the monetary expense of unpolluted from oil slicks regardless of the clarification for such spills. (FairPensions, 2012). Up so far , neither Shell nor the other company working inside the Niger Delta has contributed or means to take part in financing the most significant ever ecological remediation program. However, they have to comprehend that they need at least the ethical commitments to support the Ogoniland Clean-Up, Remediation and Satisfactorily Reinvigorate the Environment Favorable to its Development at least for people in the future.
The report by the Petroleum Revenue Special Task Force in 2012 indicated that oil companies regularly don't agree in paying fines and once they do are as yet taking care of the old punishment of N10 per 1000 standard cubic feet flared (Gas Flare Tracker). it's not legitimate for the govt to lose 1.5 billion dollars to the oil companies in unpaid fines and on the contrary hand to help them regularize their monetary situation with the govt . The paper suggests the use of the 2008 punishment pace of $3.5 per 1,000 SCF of gas flared and 1984 the year gas consuming got unlawful in Nigeria to figure the fine and make the oil companies pay 60% of the fine for half bread is best than none says the proverb.
The government has the commitments to shape sure it start the best possible arrangement for all partners required inside the oil business to restore the earth and biological system by ensuing 30years time. The government additionally has the commitments to guarantee the indigenes of Ogoni/Niger delta that haven't any methods for presence for ages to return , the best possible to having a legitimate way of life by reestablishing their occupations and improving their way of life through granting each one month to month recompense and annuity installments following their age. The government should frame an administrative body or a parastatal made chiefly out of local people. which will be at risk for revealing and observing oil harm, fixing or disassembling of the siphons and pipelines, contaminations, surrendered wells, pipeline hackings, inappropriate removals of poisonous and risky substance of oil muck or squanders for the most part , oil slicks, gas flares, and so forth ever be engaging with stricter laws to authorize oil companies that appreciates oil spilling or consuming gas inside the district and capture nearby oil related delinquents. Seen the aimless gas flare inside the zone and its commitment to the expanding heat waves the planet is encountering. The administrative body or the parastatal should make it vital continually relating to the ozone checking station at Oshodi Lagos and post of the spotless air screens that the govt with Shell will acquire and situated at every network inside the district.
This section explores the basic premises of the neo-Marxist and post-Marxist approaches to political ecology, briefly pointing out the strengths and inadequacies of these approaches in dealing with the conservation of nature and the environment.
Application of the Theory in Explaining the Situation in Ogoni Land.
In the Ogoni Community there are many Vested and opposing vested parties beginning from the govt focused enthusiasm to those of the network, including Opinion pioneers like late Ken Saro Wiwa, and accordingly the expanding wonder of oil bunkery among the developing youth populaces; bunch intrigue like those of MOSOP( Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People), and to those of Multinational Corporations. The stalemate inside the get together of this territory are regularly clarified with the system of the clashing vested parties respects their different polemics and mantra. reliable with this hypothesis, occurring the authentic courses of events of those different intrigue gatherings, one would assert that the incongruent enthusiasm throughout the years has made a serious extent of doubt and untrustworthiness among the fluctuated partners subsequently the normally get together mantra with no huge result on one hand and accordingly the subverting of any exogenous gathering structure to clean up nature so on draw in compassion or score a political point. The political of financing this venture has been a major issue between the differed intrigue gatherings. The Critical Moment here lines inside the verifiable endogenous-exogenous relations that has throughout the year been hostile both regarding interest and participatory ecological protection inclinations. This had made the stalemate identified with the crumbling ecological states of the area under audit.
This paper concludes that the impasse regarding Ogoni land environmental cleanup is not just the lack of political will but also non-governmental factors and activities that has cashed in on the situation in the Niger Delta to drive and pursue personal goals and interest. Hence, the situation in Ogoniland stands the risk of been used as a tool by political and non-political actors in pursuing personal or corporate agenda while endangering the lives and livelihoods of the people of the area. This may not be far why successive government have deployed the deplorable state of the region for political campaigns. For the clean-up programme of the Niger Delta to come to fruition, there must be strong political will void of profiteering motives. The various United Nation’s body responsible for environment safety should take active role beyond delegation and supervisory role. Attempts by the government of the day to sabotage their efforts shold be followed by serious sanction from the United Nations. With sincere efforts and decisive political will power, the Niger Delta can be cleaned up and livelihoods of the locales restored.