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Root Canal-A Review

Mohammed Abdul Kabeer*

Department of Biotechnology, Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology, India

*Corresponding Author:
Mohammed Abdul Kabeer Biotechnology
Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology, India
Tel: +91-9700465311
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: 10/08/2016; Accepted date: 20/08/2016; Published date: 27/08/2016

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Root canal therapy is a treatment used to repair and save a tooth that is badly decayed or infected.Root canal therapy is performed when the pulp which is composed of nerves and blood vessels in the tooth becomes infected or damaged. During root canal therapy, the pulp is removed, and the inside of the tooth is cleaned and sealed.People fear root canals because they assume they are painful. Actually, most people report that the procedure itself is no more painful than having a filling placed. The discomfort experienced in the period leading up to seeking dental care is truly painful, not the procedure itself.


Inside the tooth, under the white enamel and a hard layer called the dentin, is a soft tissue which is called the pulp. The pulp consists of a number of blood vessels, nerves and a number of connective tissues. It helps to grow the root of your tooth during development. In a fully matured tooth, the tooth can lasts without the pulp because it continues to be grown by the tissues around it.

Endodontic Treatment

Root canal which is also called endodontic treatment is done to the inside of the tooth. It is necessary when the pulp becomes infected. The infection can have a number of causes: deep decay, repeated dental procedures on the tooth, faulty crowns, or a crack in the tooth [1-8]. In addition, trauma to a tooth may cause damage to the pulp even if chips or cracks are not visible. If pulp infection is not treated, it can cause pain or lead to formation of abscess.

During endodontic treatment, the infected pulp is removed and the inner side of the tooth is cleaned and disinfected, it is then filled and sealed with a rubber-like material called gutta-percha. After which the tooth is restored with a crown or filling which is for protection purpose. After restoration, the tooth will function like other teeth [9-22].

Endodontic treatment helps you continue our natural smile, eating the food we love and stops the need for on-going dental work. If taken proper care, teeth that have had root canal treatment can last for lifetime.

Root canal treatment is done if an injury or a large cavity damages the root of tooth. The root becomes infected. The dentist numbs the tooth making an opening through the crown of the tooth to the pulp chamber. Infection and unhealthy pulp out of the canals is cleaned using special files [23-30]. Then they shape the canals for the filling material. Irrigation is used to help clean the canals and remove debris. The canals are filled with a permanent material. It is done with a material known as gutta-percha. This helps to keep the canals free of infection. An interim filling material is set on top of the gutta-percha to seal the opening. The filling remains until the tooth receives a permanent filling or a crown [31-45]. A crown, sometimes called a cap, resembles a characteristic tooth. It is placed over the top of the tooth. In some cases, a post is placed into the root next to the gutta-percha. This gives the crown more strength. The crown is cemented into place.

Pulp necrosis is a regular complication of dental injury in immature permanent teeth. Endodontic treatment of these teeth is often convoluted. The walls of the root canals are often divergent and the apices immature, making debridement and obturation difficult. The aim of treatment is induction of apical healing which may be characterized as apical closure by forming mineralised tissue and repair of the periapical tissues. Calcium hydroxide is the material of choice for apical barrier formation and recuperating [46-58].

The utilization of CaOH for apical barrier formation is effective in 74-100% of cases irrespective of the proprietary brand utilized. The normal period of time for apical barrier formation is around 5-20 months. Control of contamination and adequate cleaning of the root canal are very essential for apical healing.

Root-end holes have generally been set up by method for little round or modified cone brambles in a small scale hand piece. Since sonically or ultrasonically determined microsurgical retrotips turned out to be financially accessible in the mid-1990s, this new procedure of retrograde root trench instrumentation has been set up as key subordinate in periradicular surgery [59-70]. At first look, the most pertinent clinical points of interest are the upgraded access to establish closes in restricted working space and the littler osteotomy required for surgical access due to the different calculated plans and little size of the retrotips. However, various experimental studies contrasting root-end preparations made with microsurgical tips to those made with burs have shown other advantages of this new technique, such as deeper cavities that follow the original path of the root canal more closely. The more focused root-end preparation also decreases the risk of lateral perforation. Also, the geometry of the retrotip outline does not require a sloped root-end resection for surgical get to along these lines diminishing the quantity of uncovered dentinal tubules [71-82]. A questionable issue of sonic or ultrasonic root-end readiness is the shaping of breaks or microfractures, and its suggestion on recuperating achievement. The present paper surveys exploratory and clinical studies about the utilization of microsurgical retrotips in periradicular surgery and examines numerous issues brought up in past papers.

There was good evidence that conventional endodontic treatment is connected with a successful outcome in a huge extent of cases. The results of surgical treatment are harder to interpret since account should be made of the status of the current root filling. However, there is evidence of an increased success rate with an acceptable orthograde root filling [81-88].

A technique of endodontic treatment, utilizing an alteration of Maisto's paste, is proposed for protection of infected primary teeth. Including more zinc-oxide reagent and other anti-bacterial materials to the original Walkhoff's paste (Kri 1), for pulp canal medication and final filling, appears to enhance the pharmacological impact of the paste by reducing the resorption rate. The writing is looked into and a case with a subsequent time of three and a half years is depicted, in which the tooth stayed stable.

The interrelationship amongst periodontal and endodontic disease has aroused much hypothesis, perplexity and contention. Pulpal and periodontal issues are responsible for more than half of tooth mortality today. Analysis is often difficult since these infections have been studied primarily as separate entities [89-95]. The harmful substances of the pulp may start periodontal defects through canal ramifications and patent dentinal tubules, thus impairing wound healing in regenerative procedures. Although no studies exist tending to direct effect of pulpal infection on the outcome of Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) procedures, many studies indicate that pulpal status may play an important role toward the end results of GTR. This review article examines the potential impact of endodontic treatment on the long-term outcomes of GTR. Potential pathways between the pulp and periodontal ligament, which may be responsible for the failure of the regeneration of new periodontal attachment apparatus, are explored. Examination and review of the clinical and research findings in the literature relating to perio-endo lesions are made to demonstrate that a negative impact may exist between GTR results and the status of the pulp.

Patients are continuously wishing to encounter routine endodontic treatment as opposed to danger of losing a tooth. Endodontic medicines in teeth that have been as of now re-established with broad intracoronal or extracoronal reclamations are regularly hard to treat. The acquaintance of the root canals with the crown of the tooth might be lost, and this may frequently be compounded by the deposition of reparative dentin in the pulp chamber. The working magnifying lens permits better perception of the working field [96-102], guaranteeing that the life systems of the tooth is all the more immediately inspected. This essentially improves the clinician's capacity to discover extra root channels and subsequently improve the probability of an effective result. It ought not to be overlooked that the working magnifying lens likewise has a place in various fields of dentistry, particularly remedial dentistry, and is a resource for both the expert and the generalist.