All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Signs, Symptoms and Causes of Cervical Cancer

Ava Lily*

Department of Immunology, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom

*Corresponding Author:
Ava Lily
Department of Immunology,
Durham University,
United Kingdom

Received: 03-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. MCO-22-68833; Editor assigned: 7-Jun-2022, PreQC No. MCO-22-68833 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Jun-2022, QC No. MCO-22-68833; Revised: 29-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. MCO-22-68833 (A); Published: 08-Jul-2022, DOI: 10.4172/ Med & Clin Oncol.6.3.001.

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Medical and Clinical Oncology


A cancer that starts in the cervix is called cervical cancer. It is caused by cells that have the capacity to invade or disseminate to different places of the body growing abnormally. Early on, there are frequently no signs visible. Later signs and symptoms could include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, or discomfort during sex. While bleeding after sex might not be a significant problem, it could also be a sign of cervical cancer. More than 90% of instances are caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV); nevertheless, the majority of those who have had HPV infections do not go on to develop cervical cancer. Nearly half of high grade cervical pre-cancers are caused by HPV 16 and 18 strains. Smoking, a weakened immune system, birth control pills, beginning sex at a young age, and having numerous sexual partners are other risk factors, although they are less significant. Cervical cancer risk is also influenced by genetic factors. Precancerous alterations usually lead to cervical cancer over the course of 10 to 20 years. Squamous cell carcinomas account for about 90% of cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinomas for 10%, and other kinds account for a very minor percentage.

Typically, a biopsy is performed after a cervical screening for diagnosis. The next step is to perform medical imaging to check for the spread of the cancer.

Up to 90% of cervical cancers may be prevented with HPV vaccinations, which offer protection against two to seven high-risk variants of this virus family. According to recommendations, routine Pap testing should continue as long as there is a chance of cancer. Utilizing condoms and having few or no sexual partners are two more preventative strategies. Precancerous alterations can be found during a cervical cancer screening using the Pap test or acetic acid, which when treated, can stop the growth of cancer. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery may all be used as treatment options. United States survival rates after five years are 68%. However, outcomes greatly depend on how quickly the malignancy is found.

Signs and symptoms

There may be no signs or symptoms at all in the early stages of cervical cancer. The presence of cancer may be indicated by vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding (of which the most frequent type is bleeding after sexual contact), or (rarely) a vaginal area. Additionally, vaginal discharge and mild pain during sex are signs of cervical cancer. Metastases in the abdomen, lungs, or elsewhere may be found in a disease that has advanced.

Loss of appetite, weight loss, weariness, pelvic pain, back pain, leg pain, swollen legs, heavy vaginal bleeding, bone fractures, and in general urine or faeces leaks from the vagina are all signs of advanced cervical cancer. Bleeding following a pelvic exam or after douching is a typical sign of cervical cancer.


The biggest risk factor for cervical cancer is infection with specific HPV strains, which is followed by smoking. Another risk factor is HIV infection. However, not all of the major causes of cervical cancer are understood, and a number of additional risk factors may also be at play.

Human papillomavirus

Globally, HPV types 16 and 18 account for 75% of instances of cervical cancer, with HPV types 31 and 45 accounting for the remaining 10% of cases. Women who participate in the activities with males who have several partners or women who have multiple relationships face a higher risk.