Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi, Bengaluru, India
Received: 01-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JSMS-23-93922; Editor assigned: 03-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. JSMS-23-93922 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Mar-2023, QC No. JSMS-23-93922; Revised: 24-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JSMS-23-93922 (A); Published:31-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.4172/J Stats Math Sci.9.1.006
Citation: Shrasti K. Statistics: A Methodical Way of Analysing Data and Inferential Statistics Techniques in Various Fields. J Stats Math Sci. 2023;9:006.
Copyright: © 2023 Shrasti K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Statistics is a branch of mathematics concerned with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. It plays a crucial role in many fields, including science, social science, finance, and engineering. In this article, we will explore the basics of statistics, including its key concepts and applications. Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that deals with the collection, presentation, and summary of data. It involves the use of graphical and numerical techniques to describe the characteristics of a dataset. Some of the commonly used descriptive statistics techniques include measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode), measures of variability (range, variance, and standard deviation), and graphical displays (histograms, scatter plots, and box plots). Inferential statistics is the branch of statistics that deals with making predictions and inferences about a population based on a sample. It involves the use of probability theory to draw conclusions about a population based on a sample. Some of the commonly used inferential statistics techniques include hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and regression analysis.
Statistics has a wide range of applications in various fields. In science, statistics is used to analyze experimental data and to test hypotheses. In social science, statistics is used to study the behavior of individuals and groups, and to determine the relationships between variables. In finance, statistics is used to analyze financial data and to make investment decisions. In engineering, statistics is used to analyze experimental data and to optimize processes. When complete census data cannot be gathered, statisticians employ specialized experiment designs and survey samples to gather sample data. With statistical models, statistics itself also offers instruments for forecasting and prediction. A sample must accurately represent the full population if it is to serve as a guide for the entire population. A representative sample ensures that generalizations and inferences from the sample to the entire population are safe. Determining the degree to which the sample selected is genuinely representative is a significant challenge. A bias in the sample selection and data collection processes can be estimated and corrected using statistical approaches. However, there are experimental design techniques that help minimize these problems at the onset of a study, enhancing its capacity to identify population-level truths. The mathematical field of probability theory includes sampling theory. In mathematical statistics, probability is used to investigate the sampling distributions of sample statistics and, more broadly, the characteristics of statistical methods. Every statistical approach can be used as long as the population or system being studied follows the assumptions of the method. Classical probability theory and sampling theory are seen from different angles; probability theory begins by determining the probabilities that apply to samples based on the parameters that are known about the entire population. Yet, statistical inference goes the other way, inferring inductively from samples to the characteristics of a larger or overall population.
Statistics is a powerful tool that has become an essential part of many fields. It provides a methodical way of collecting and analyzing data, which allows researchers to draw meaningful conclusions and make accurate predictions. By understanding the basics of statistics, we can gain a better appreciation of its importance and its many applications.