Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, USA
Received: 24-May-2023, Manuscript No. JOMC-23-99892; Editor assigned: 29-May-2023, Pre QC No. JOMC-23-99892 (PQ); Reviewed: 12-Jun-2023, QC No. JOMC-23-99892; Revised: 19-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. JOMC-23-99892 (R); Published: 26-Jun-2023, DOI: 10.4172/J Med.Orgnichem.10.2.008
Citation: Kawa Y. The Role and Potential of Polynucleotides in Science and Medicine. RRJ Med.Orgnichem. 2023;10:008
Copyright: © 2023 Kawa Y. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Polynucleotides are biopolymers made up of 13 or more nucleotide monomers that are covalently bound together in a chain. Nucleotides are chemical molecules composed of three subunits: a nucleobase (either a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar with five carbons, and a phosphate group. The sugar component can be ribose or deoxyribose. The sugar component of the nucleotides that make up RNA (ribonucleic acid) is ribose sugar. The sugar component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is deoxyribose. A DNA or RNA polynucleotide chain is made up of three parts: a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA), and a phosphate group. Cytosine can be found in both DNA and RNA, but thymine can only be found in DNA, and uracil can replace thymine in RNA. An N-glycosidic bond joins a nitrogenous base to the 1′ carbon of a pentose sugar to form a nucleoside such as adenosine or deoxyadenosine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine, cytidine deoxycytidine, uridine and deoxythymidine. A nucleotide (or deoxynucleotide, depending on the sugar present) is formed when a phosphate group forms a phosphodiester bond with the 5′ carbon of a nucleoside.
RNA is made up of a single polynucleotide chain that is folded into complicated structures. One of the nucleobases in RNA is Uracil (U), not thymine. RNA can play a variety of roles in the cell, including transporting genetic information from DNA to the protein-synthesizing machinery (messenger RNA or mRNA), being a component of the protein-synthesizing machinery (ribosomal RNA or rRNA), and regulating gene expression (transfer RNA or tRNA, microRNA or miRNA, and so on).
group of the nucleotide and the hydroxyl group of the sugar component of the next nucleotide connect the monomers in a chain. Polynucleotides are one of the most important biopolymers, along with polysaccharides and polypeptides."
Polynucleotides are found in all living creatures. An organism's genome is made up of complementary pairs of extraordinarily long polynucleotides wrapped around each other in the shape of a double helix. The genome contains all of the genetic information required for the organism's development and function. In addition to energy storage (Adenosine Triphosphate, or ATP), signal transmission (Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, or cAMP), and coenzyme production (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, or NAD), polynucleotides play a number of important roles in organisms.
Polynucleotides are also employed in biological investigations such as PCR and DNA sequencing. Polynucleotides are created synthetically from oligonucleotides, which are shorter nucleotide chains with less than 30 subunits. A polymerase enzyme is employed to lengthen the chain by adding nucleotides in a way that the scientist specifies.
Polynucleotides are also crucial in understanding the origins of life on Earth. The primeval soup contained free-floating ribonucleotides, according to the RNA world hypothesis. These were the basic molecules that linked together to produce RNA. RNA could then catalyse its own reproduction and perform other metabolic processes, resulting in the development of life. Recent research has revealed that nucleobases can condense with ribose to produce ribonucleosides in aqueous micro droplets, a critical step in the creation of RNA.
Polynucleotides have also been employed in medicinal applications such as dermal fillers and the treatment of osteoarthritis. A polynucleotide produced from fish is injected into the skin to stimulate collagen formation and enhance skin suppleness. Polynucleotide possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties that can help relieve knee osteoarthritis discomfort. Natural polynucleotides include nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. DNA, in example, encodes the sequence of amino acids used in protein synthesis. It carries the genetic 'blueprint' since it contains the instructions or information (called genes) required to build cellular components such as proteins and RNAs. RNA is the genetic substance in some viruses. RNAs are involved in the following processes in most organisms: protein synthesis (e.g., mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, etc.), post-transcriptional modification or DNA replication (e.g., snRNA, snoRNA, etc.), Post-transcriptional modification or DNA replication (for example, snRNA, snoRNA, etc.) and gene regulation (for example, miRNA, siRNA, tasiRNA, etc.) Polynucleotides are employed in scientific studies and investigations. They are synthesised from oligonucleotides and used in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing.