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The Roles of Nurture in the Recruitment and Retention of Primary Care Physicians

Brooks Robert G*

School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand

*Corresponding Author:
Brooks Robert G
School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
E-mail: [email protected]

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Abstract

For this purpose, a quantitative bibliometric analysis of the 892 documents related to this topic contained within the Web of Science Core Collection has been carried out. Results show that studies on rural tourism mainly focus on Spain, Romania, and China. However, the most prolific authors are from Portugal, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. There is a notable lack of studies focused on countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, mainly due to political and religious factors. Rural tourism is also an important and emergent sector, particularly in countries like Romania and China

Description

A systematic review of factors associated with recruitment and retention of primary care physicians in rural areas. Studies were grouped by whether the factors assessed were related to pre-medical school, medical school, or residency. Pre-medical school factors such as rural upbringing and specialty preference were most strongly correlated with recruitment of physicians to rural areas. Training factors such as commitment to rural curricula and rotations, particularly during residency, were most strongly correlated with retention in rural areas. Policies for staffing rural areas with primary care physicians should be aimed at both selecting the right students and giving them during their formal training the curriculum and the experiences that are needed to succeed in primary care in rural settings. This work represents a contribution by showing the state of the art of research on rural tourism and development, identifying trends and proposing future lines and topics of research. Rural tourism and its influence on the economic development of rural areas has been an important and dynamic area of research since 2004. For this purpose, a quantitative bibliometric analysis of the 892 documents related to this topic contained within the Web of Science Core Collection has been carried out. Results show that studies on rural tourism mainly focus on Spain, Romania, and China. However, the most prolific authors are from Portugal, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. There is a notable lack of studies focused on countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, mainly due to political and religious factors. Rural tourism is also an important and emergent sector, particularly in countries like Romania and China.Entrepreneurship has become a dynamic field of research in the last two decades. However, ‘rural entrepreneurship’ has been largely overlooked. It seems therefore timely to present a quantitative survey of the literature in this particular area. Based on 181 articles on rural entrepreneurship published in journals indexed in Scopus, we found that rural entrepreneurship is an essentially European concern, whose most prolific authors are affiliated with institutions in the UK and Spain. Organisational characteristics, policy measures and institutional frameworks and governance have attracted considerable attention in recent years, being considered emergent topics of research. In contrast, theory building has not attracted much research over the period in analysis, which suggests that the theoretical body of rural entrepreneurship is still incipient, hindering the establishment of its boundaries and of a suitable research agenda. Empirical literature on rural entrepreneurship has focused mainly on developed countries, most notably, the UK, the USA, Spain, Finland and Greece. Given the potential rural entrepreneurship represents for less developed and underdeveloped countries, more research on the topic targeting these countries is an imperative. Despite considerable progress in the epidemiology of late life depression, little data have been documented in the scientific literature on depressive symptoms among elderly African Americans. The present investigation identifies characteristic symptoms of depression in African American community-resident elders. Ninety-six African American men and women aged 60 years and older, with equal representation from urban and rural counties in west Tennessee, composed the sample. The sample was stratified in each of the two counties into three age categories; 60–69, 70ndash; 79, and 80 and older. Data from the Center for Epidemiological Studies- Depression scale were compared with the association of medical illness, medication use, social network, level of physical function in activities of daily living, and demographic characteristics. Considering the projected increase of African Americans reaching age 60, and because depressive illness is an important public health concern, early identification of salient risk factors for depression is critical in instituting early intervention programs for the ethnic minority elderly population. The purposes of this study were to assess the level of foot self-care performed in a rural, multiethnic population of older adults and to identify factors associated with foot self-care. The Evaluating Long-term Diabetes Self-management Among Elder Rural Adults study included a random sample of 701 African American, Native American, and white adults from 2 rural North Carolina counties. Participants completed in-home interviews, 5 foot selfcare practices from the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), functional status measures, and measures of education and support for foot care. These findings indicate that educating patients about foot self-care may encourage routine foot care but that those dependent on either formal or informal support to perform foot care do so less frequently than those who perform it independently.
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