e-ISSN: 2320-7949 and p-ISSN: 2322-0090

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The Signs and symptoms of Dental Caries

Samuel Silveira*

Department of Dentistry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author:
Samuel Silveira
Department of Dentistry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Samuel @ Silveira23.et

Received: 14-Sep-2022, Manuscript No,JDS-22-77263; Editor assigned: 16-Sep-2022, Manuscript No, JDS-22-77263(PQ); Reviewed: 30-Sep-2022, QC No. JDS-22-77263; Revised: 07-Oct-2022, QC No. JDS-22-77255; Published: 14-Oct-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2320-7949.10.S1.005.

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Tooth decay, commonly known as cavities or caries, is the deterioration of teeth caused by bacteria's acids. The cavities can be a variety of hues ranging from yellow to black. Pain and difficulty eating are possible symptoms. Inflammation of the tissue surrounding the tooth, tooth loss, infection, or abscess formation is all possible complications. Cavities are caused by acid from bacteria eroding the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin and cementum). Bacteria release acid when they break down food debris or sugar on the tooth surface. Because simple sugars in food are these bacteria's principal energy source, a high simple sugar diet is a risk factor. Caries develops when mineral breakdown exceeds mineral buildup from sources such as saliva. Conditions that cause reduced saliva production, such as diabetes, Sjögren syndrome, and various drugs, such as antihistamines and antidepressants, are risk factors.

Dental caries is also linked to poverty, poor oral hygiene, and receding gums, which exposes the roots of the teeth. Dental caries prevention comprises frequent tooth cleaning, a low-sugar diet, and modest quantities of fluoride. Brushing your teeth twice a day and flossing between your teeth once a day are also suggested. Fluoride can be obtained from a variety of sources, including water, salt, and toothpaste. Treating a mother's dental caries may lower her children's risk by reducing the quantity of bacteria she may pass on to them. Screening may lead to earlier detection. Depending on the extent of the damage, various procedures can be employed to restore the tooth's function, or the tooth may be extracted. There is no known way to regrow substantial amounts of tooth. Treatment is frequently unavailable in the impoverished nations. Pain can be relieved by paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen [1-3].

Signs and symptoms

A person suffering from caries may be unaware of the disease. The emergence of a chalky white spot on the surface of the tooth, suggesting an area of demineralization of enamel, is the first indicator of a new carious lesion. This is known as a white spot lesion, an immature carious lesion, or a "micro-cavity." The lesion may turn brown as it continues to demineralize, but it will eventually become a cavitation ("cavity"). The procedure is reversible before the cavity starts, but once the cavity forms, the destroyed tooth structure cannot be regenerated. A dark brown and lustrous lesion indicates that dental caries were once present but that the demineralization process has ceased, leaving a stain. Active decay is lighter in hue and duller in appearance.

The cavity gets more visible as the enamel and dentin are eroded. The tooth's damaged parts change color and become soft to the touch. When decay penetrates the enamel, the dentinal tubules, which contain routes to the tooth's nerve, become exposed, resulting in pain that can be temporary, worsening with exposure to heat, cold, or sugary foods and drinks. A tooth that has been weakened by significant internal decay may unexpectedly fracture under typical chewing forces. When the decay has advanced sufficiently to allow bacteria to overpower the pulp tissue in the center of the tooth, a toothache might occur, and the discomfort will become more consistent. Infection and pulp tissue death are usual outcomes. The tooth will no longer be sensitive to hot or cold temperatures, although it may be extremely sensitive to pressure [4-6].

Bad breath and nasty flavors can also be caused by dental caries. In severe circumstances, an infection can extend from the tooth to the soft tissues surrounding it. Complications like cavernous sinus thrombosis and Ludwig angina can be fatal.