Department of Oncology, The University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Received: 03-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. MCO-22- 68837; Editor assigned: 7-Jun- 2022, PreQC No. MCO-22- 68837 (PQ); Reviewed: 21- Jun-2022, QC No. MCO-22- 68837; Revised: 29-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. MCO-22- 68837 (A); Published: 08-Jul- 2022, DOI: 10.4172/Med & Clin Oncol.6.3.005.
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The application of surgery to oncology is known as surgical oncology, and it focuses on the surgical treatment of malignancies, particularly malignant tumours. The field of surgical oncology has developed in stages comparable to those of medical oncology (cancer pharmacotherapy), which emerged from haematology, and radiation oncology, which emerged from radiology, as one of several modalities in the management of cancer. Surgeons interested in advancing oncology founded the Ewing Society, which is now known as the Society of Surgical Oncology. A specialty Board certification for Complex General Surgical Oncology was granted by the American Board of
Surgery in 2011. The field will continue to gain popularity due to the growth
of cancer centers and advancements in minimally invasive procedures, palliative surgery, and neoadjuvant therapies. A branch of medicine known as surgical oncology focuses on the surgical treatment of cancer. Its major objective is to locate and eliminate any hazardous malignancies from body. Additionally, surgical oncologists can determine whether you have cancer and whether it has spread to other organs.
When cancer is still in its early stages or is more advanced, surgical oncology can help. Typical justifications for requiring this kind of medication include:
To stop cancer. A surgical oncologist can perform an operation to prevent the disease in areas of your body where you are at a high risk of contracting it. They remove any precancerous or cancer-prone tissue from the affected area. For instance, some women may work with a surgical oncologist to have their removal of breast before cancer manifests if they have a very strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer and gene abnormalities linked to the disease.
Tumors are removed by surgical oncologists to assist your body get rid of cancerous cells. There are several distinct surgical procedures:
Curative: This surgery is used when a surgical oncologist can completely remove a tumor that is only present in one location. Before or after, you might require chemotherapy or radiation treatment.
Debunking: When it would be too risky to remove the entire tumor, oncologists do this operation. They take out as much of it as they can and use chemotherapy or radiation therapy on the remaining portions.
Supportive: This kind of operation might be suggested by doctor to support the efficacy of other cancer treatments.
Surgical oncology types and forms
The most typical types and forms of oncological surgery are as follows:
• Surgery for cancer diagnosis, staging, and curative surgery
• Drastic surgery palliative surgery surgery to remove cancerous tissue
• Surgical support
• Surgical reconstruction
• Surgical (prophylactic) prevention.
Surgical oncology Techniques
Modern surgical procedures are less invasive, employ a variety of surgical devices, cause less pain, and take less time to heal. Cryosurgery is the most efficient surgical oncology procedure.
• Electro surgery
• A laparoscopic procedure
• Laser procedure
• Mohs procedure
• Radiofrequency ablation
• Radiofrequency ablation\srobotic surgery and other techniques of surgery.
• Theroscopic procedure
Surgery may be performed on a person who has cancer or is suspected of having it for a variety of reasons. Using
surgical oncology, one can:
• Identify cancer (diagnostic surgery or biopsy)
• Remove a tumor or some cancerous tissue (curative or debulking surgery)
• Discover the location of the cancer, whether it has spread, and whether it is interfering with the operation of other organs (staging surgery)
• Remove any potentially malignant bodily tissue (preventive surgery)
• Support additional forms of therapy, such adding an infusion port (supportive surgery)
• restore the look or functionality of the body (reconstructive surgery)
• reduce negative consequences (palliative surgery)
A large incision is made by the surgical oncologist during open surgery, typically to remove a tumour in its entirety or in part along with some of the surrounding healthy tissue (margins).
Using minimally invasive surgical methods, you might:
Laparoscopy: A surgical oncologist will create a few tiny incisions and place a laparoscope—a thin tube with a tiny camera connected to it—into one of the incisions to take an inside image, while placing surgical tools into the other incisions to remove tumours and surrounding tissue.
Laser surgery: To remove a tumour, the surgeon will utilize a focused, high-intensity light beam.
Liquid nitrogen will be used by the surgeon during cryosurgery to freeze and destroy cancer cells.