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Trigonometric Functions: Definition, Formulas, Ratios and Properties of Sine, Cosine, and Tangent

Shaun Murphy*

Department of Mathematics, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

*Corresponding Author:
Shaun Murphy
Department of Mathematics, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Received: 23-May-2023, Manuscript No. JSMS-23-100281; Editor assigned: 25-May-2023, Pre QC No. JSMS-23-100281 (PQ); Reviewed: 08-Jun-2023, QC No. JSMS-23-100281; Revised: 15-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. JSMS- 23-100281 (A); Published: 22-Jun-2023, DOI: 10.4172/J Stats Math Sci.9.2.007

Citation: Murphy S. Trigonometric Functions: Definition, Formulas, Ratios and Properties of Sine, Cosine, and Tangent. J Stats Math Sci. 2023;9:007.

Copyright: © 2023 Murphy S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies the relationships between angles and sides of triangles. It is essential for various disciplines including engineering, physics, and astronomy, as well as everyday applications such as navigation. Trigonometry is known for its many identities, which are commonly used to simplify an expression, to find a more useful form of an expression, or to solve equations. These identities include the Pythagorean identities, reciprocal identities, quotient identities, and co-function identities. The Pythagorean identities relate the three sides of a right triangle, offering a foundation for many other trigonometric relationships. The reciprocal identities demonstrate the relationships between the six trigonometric functions, while the quotient identities relate the ratios of sine, cosine, and tangent. The co-function identities introduce the relationships between trigonometric functions and their compliments, for example, cosine and sine, or tangent and cotangent. In trigonometry, there are six trigonometric functions: sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent. Each has a particular relationship to a right triangle, and these functions are used to calculate the angles and lengths of sides of right triangles. Trigonometry also uses trigonometric ratios, which are values that compare the lengths of two sides of a right triangle. The most commonly used trigonometric ratios are sine, cosine, and tangent.

One of the primary properties of trigonometric functions is periodicity. Periodicity refers to the concept that the values of trigonometric functions repeat themselves after a certain interval. This interval is known as the period of the function. The period of sine and cosine functions for example is 2π . The tangent function, on the other hand, has a period of. Another important property of trigonometric functions is symmetry. The most well-known symmetry property is the even-odd property. Even functions, such as cosine, have a y-axis symmetry, meaning that cos(-x)=cos(x). Odd functions, such as sine, have a point symmetry through the origin, meaning that sin(-x)= -sin(x). Additionally, the reciprocal functions cosecant, secant, and cotangent have similar symmetry properties. Limits are another critical property of trigonometric functions. As the angle approaches certain values, the values of the functions may approach infinity or negative infinity, giving rise to asymptotes. For example, the tangent function has asymptotes at odd multiples of π/2. There are many trigonometric identities that relate different trigonometric functions and properties. For example, the Pythagorean identity relates the squares of sine and cosine to one, while the sum and difference identities relate the sum or difference of angles to their trigonometric functions.

Trigonometric functions also exhibit monotonicity, meaning that their values increase or decrease monotonically as the angle increases. For example, the sine function is an increasing function from 0 to π and then decreases from πto 2π. Trigonometry is a vital component of mathematics and has been integral to many fields, from astronomy to navigation. Its many identities, functions, and ratios provide a foundation for a vast range of calculations and problem solving. Trigonometric functions are among the most widely used mathematical functions in both pure and applied mathematics. They are present in a vast range of applications, including signal processing, navigation, and statistics. Understanding these functions is essential for success in mathematics and many other fields.