Department of Biology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
Received: 01-Mar-2023 Manuscript No. JZS-23-92776; Editor assigned: 03-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. JZS-23-92776 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Mar-2023, QC No. JZS-23-92776; Revised: 24-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JZS-23-92776 (A); Published: 31-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.4172/ 2321-6190.11.1.003
Citation: Brooks P. Understanding the Basics of Animal Metabolism: A Guide to Energy Production and Regulation. J Zool Sci. 2023;11:003.
Copyright: © 2023 Brooks P. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Animal metabolism refers to the chemical reactions that occur within an animal’s body to maintain life. These reactions are essential for the animal to grow, reproduce, and maintain homeostasis. Understanding animal metabolism is important for a wide range of fields, including biology, ecology, and agriculture.
Overview of animal metabolism
Animal metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism refers to the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones to release energy. This process involves the release of energy-rich molecules, such as ATP, and the production of waste products, such as carbon dioxide and water. Anabolism, on the other hand, refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones. This process requires energy and results in the production of molecules that are essential for the animal’s growth and maintenance.
Animals acquire energy from the food they consume. The energy content of food is measured in units of calories or joules. The amount of energy required by an animal depends on its metabolic rate, which is determined by factors such as body size, activity level, and environmental temperature. The energy content of food is stored in the form of macromolecules, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. These macromolecules are broken down through catabolic reactions to release energy.
Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy for most animals. They are broken down into glucose, which is then used to produce ATP through a process called cellular respiration. Excess glucose is stored in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen. When glucose levels in the blood are low, glycogen is broken down to release glucose.
Proteins are essential for growth and maintenance of the body. They are broken down into amino acids, which can be used to produce ATP through cellular respiration. Amino acids can also be used to synthesize new proteins or converted into glucose or other molecules.
Fats are a secondary source of energy for animals. They are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, which can be used to produce ATP through cellular respiration. Excess fat is stored in adipose tissue and can be used as an energy reserve during times of food scarcity.
Regulation of metabolism
Animal metabolism is regulated by hormones, which are produced by endocrine glands. Hormones are chemical messengers that signal cells to perform specific functions. For example, insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates glucose levels in the blood. When glucose levels are high, insulin signals cells to take up glucose for energy or storage.
Animal metabolism is a complex process that is essential for life. It involves the breakdown of complex molecules to release energy and the synthesis of new molecules for growth and maintenance. Understanding animal metabolism is important for a wide range of fields, including biology, ecology, and agriculture. By studying animal metabolism, researchers can gain insights into how animals adapt to different environments and how their metabolism can be manipulated to improve human health and food production.