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Verification and Fabrication of Joule –Thomson Effect

Sadhasivam C* and Damodaran B

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India

*Corresponding Author:
Sadhasivam C
Assistant professor Department of Mechanical Engineering
Saveetha School of Engineering
Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: 22/09/2016; Accepted Date: 24/10/2016; Published Date: 31/10/2016

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Engineering and Technology


To verify the Joule Thomson effect by liquefaction of the atmospheric gases. Joule-Thomson effect states that “heat change in temperature of a gas on expansion through a porous plug from a high pressure to a lower one under adiabatic conditions”. The atmospheric air is compressed to increase the pressure using a compressor. This compressed air is sent through a heat exchanger which facilitates the lowering of temperature of the system by the temperature difference created between the inlet and the outlet fluid. Again the fluid is sent through a throttling valve which is capable of suddenly expanding the air resulting in further cooling and leads to the formation of liquid droplets.


Joule Thompson, Compressor, Heat exchanger, Throttling


Joule-Thomson impact, within which the non-ideal gas suddenly expands from a high to a coffee pressure there's typically a natural process. The magnitude relation of ΔT/ΔP is thought because the Joule-Thomson constant note that this is often removed from a reversible impact, it’s but associate in nursing adiabatic effect, and in several applications adibaticity results from the easy proven fact that the pressure modification happens too quickly for important heat transfer to occur. For several gases at temperature [1], the ΔT/ΔP magnitude relation is with positive. Thus, a pressure drop is in the middle of a temperature drop. In step with Joule-Thomson impact, air, chemical element and inert gas were additionally liquefied. Joule performed Associate in nursing experiment to check the impact of modification within the temperature of a gas once it's allowed to submit to the porous plug from the high facet to the depression facet (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Diagrammatic representation of Joule-Thomson impact.

Throttling Valve

Throttling may be a method during which the flow of fluid is restricted by closing the valve part. Currently imagine there square measure students in a very category area and because the bell rungs they started moving out. Currently if the door is opened part then there'll be clusters type by the scholars. Equally in flow of fluid there's restriction to flow, currently as students type clusters they pushing alternative students and within the same method fluid particles begin rubbing with alternative molecules and as a result friction is there and as we have a tendency to all apprehend friction is one in every of the most important reason for any method to create it irreversible (Figure 2). Therefore it's clear that strangling is irreversible.


Figure 2: Description of Throttler.


Examples of throttling process

1. Flow through a partly opened valve as in IC engines.

2. Flow through a awfully tiny gap e.g. orifice.

Flow through a Porous Plug Characteristics of Throttling

No work transfer

As we all know there's work transfer in turbines because of terribly massive pressure distinction. However within the case of choking there's terribly low variations that the work we have a tendency to get is extremely little and this work is lost in overcoming friction. Therefore here we have a tendency to usually neglect the work transfer.

No heat transfer

Lets see it with an example imagine you open the freeze and took out your bottle and simply among the fraction of seconds you set back that bottle, currently what's the temperature [2] distinction between the two states of the bottle, it's approx. zero. It suggests that heat transfer desires your time, currently what happened in suffocation is that device length is incredibly tiny and therefore the fluid is usually pushed ahead thanks to the majority coming back and due this there's not a lot of time for the warmth transfer. As we tend to square measure considering the steady flow and bulk isn't accumulated within the device therefore heat transfer is additionally neglected.

Irreversible process

In physical science, a modification within the physics state of a system and every one of its surroundings can't be exactly fixed up to its initial state by microscopic changes in some property of the system while not expenditure of energy. A system that undergoes Associate in nursing process should still be capable of returning to its initial state; but, the impossibility happens in restoring the atmosphere to its own initial conditions. Associate in nursing process will increase the entropy of the universe.

Copper tubes

Copper tube is most frequently used for offer of hot and cold H2O, and as refrigerant line in HVAC systems. There area unit 2 basic styles of copper tube, soft copper and rigid copper. Copper tube is joined exploitation flare association, compression association, or solder. Copper offers a high level of corrosion resistance, however is turning into terribly expensive.


Soft copper: Soft (or ductile) copper tube will be bent simply to travel around obstacles within the path of the tube. Whereas the work laboriousening of the drawing method accustomed size the tube makes the copper hard or rigid, it's rigorously tempered to form it soft again; it's so dearer to provide than non-annealed, rigid copper tube. It will be joined by any of the 3 ways used for rigid copper, and it's the sole style of copper tube appropriate for flare connections. Soft copper is that the most well liked selection for refrigerant lines in split-system air conditioners and warmth pumps.

Rigid copper: Rigid copper may be a standard selection for water lines. It’s joined employing a sweat, roll grooved, compression or crimped/pressed affiliation. Rigid copper, rigid thanks to the work hardening of the drawing method, cannot be bent and should use elbow fittings to travel around corners or around obstacles.

Copper Tube: (1/2” Inch).

Heat Exchanger

A device could be a device wont to transfer heat between one or additional fluids. The fluids is also separated by a solid wall to stop compounding or they will be in direct contact. They are wide employed in area heating, refrigeration, air con, power stations, chemical plants, organic compound plants, crude refineries, natural-gas process, and sewerage treatment. The classic example of a device is found in an indoor combustion engine within which a current fluid called engine fluid flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, that cools the fluid and heats the incoming air.

Heat Exchanger Works

You can see heat exchangers altogether types of places, typically operating to heat or cool buildings or serving to engines and machines to figure additional with efficiency. Refrigerators and air-conditioners, let's say, use heat exchangers within the opposite manner from heating systems: they take away heat from a compartment or area wherever it is not needed and pump it away in a very fluid to another place wherever it is drop out of the manner.

A apparatus extracts heat from a natural geothermic thermal spring, accustomed heat buildings at Hot Springs Lodge and Pool in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The money dealer is that the algae-covered plate packed with copper tubes within the centre of the water. Image by Warren Gretz courtesy people DOE/NREL (Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory). In power plants or engines, exhaust gases usually contain heat that is heading uselessly away into the outside. That is a waste of energy and one thing a device will definitely cut back (though not eliminate entirely some heat is usually progressing to be lost) [3].

The thanks to solve this drawback is with heat exchangers positioned within the exhaust tail pipes or smokestacks. Because the hot exhaust gases drift upward, they brush past copper fins with water flowing through them. The water carries the warmth away, back to the plant. There, it'd be recycled directly; perhaps warming the cold gases that feed into the engine or chamber, saving the energy that may well be required to heat them up [4]. Or it might be place to another sensible use, let's say, heating associate degree workplace close to the chimney (Figure 3).


Figure 3: Process of Heat Exchanger.

Working of Heat Exchanger


An compressor may be a device that converts power (using an electrical motor, diesel or ICE, etc.) into P.E. hold on in controlled air (i.e., compressed air). By one among many strategies, associate degree compressor forces additional and additional air into a vessel, increasing the pressure. Once tank pressure reaches its higher limit the compressor shuts off. The compressed gas, then, is control within the tank till referred to as into use. The energy contained within the compressed gas are often used for a range of applications, utilizing the K.E. of the air because it is discharged and therefore the tank depressurizes. Once tank pressure reaches its lower limit, the compressor activates once more and re-pressurizes the tank (Figure 4).


Figure 4:Compressor.

Schematic Diagram of Air Compressor

Working principle

Air compressors collect and store air in an exceedingly controlled tank, associate degreed use pistons and valves to attain the acceptable pressure levels among an air tank that's connected to the motorized unit. There area unit many differing kinds of piston compressors that may deliver even air pressures to the user. Automotive compressors area unit combustion engine compressors that use the up-and-down stroke of the piston to permit air in and pressurize the air among the tank. Alternative piston compressors utilize a diaphragm, oil-free piston. These pull air in, and pressurize it by not permitting air to flee throughout the gathering amount. These area unit the foremost common varieties of air compressors that area unit used nowadays by experienced employees and craftsmen. Before the day of motorized engines, air compressors weren't what they're nowadays [5]. Unable to store controlled air, a sort of antique compressor could also be found within the blacksmith's manufacturing plant bellows. Now the compressor is capable of building extreme pressures in storage tanks capable of storing huge amounts of controlled gases for industrial use.


In our project physical change of gases is achieved by undergoing solely 3 stages. So temperature losses are reduced significantly and better potency might be obtained. Here, the heat money dealer used could be a easy element manufactured from copper and therefore price potency is obtained. Also, the warmth exchanging is completed by direct technique employing a easy device. And if, this easy device is replaced by some industrially used heat exchangers, the potency might be still improved.