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Wildlife Conservation: Threats and Conservation Methods

Evangeline Rose*

Department of Zoology, University of Calgary, Canada

*Corresponding Author:
Evangeline Rose
Department of Zoology, University of Calgary, Canada
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: 07/12/2021; Accepted date: 21/12/2021; Published date: 28/12/2021

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Commentary

Wildlife conservation means the practice of protecting wildlife and its habitats in order to maintain a healthy wildlife or population to restore, protect or enhance the wildlife. Major threats to wildlife include environmental degradation, fragmentation, over-exploitation, poaching, pollution and climate change. Degradation of habitats reduces the number of wildlife habitats. Habitat divisions divide a continuous area, often splitting large wildlife into a few smaller ones. Man-made habitat loss and fragmentation are major causes of species extinction. Important examples of human-caused deforestation include deforestation, agricultural expansion, and urban growth. Degradation of habitats and fragmentation can increase the vulnerability of wildlife populations by reducing the area and resources available to them and increasing the risk of human encroachment. Excessive exploitation of the harvest of animals and plants at a rapid rate has the potential for a kind of sustainability. Although often associated with overfishing, overuse can work in many groups including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and plants. The danger of overheating is that if too many people of a certain type are taken, then that kind of person may no longer be fit. For example, overfishing of marine mammals such as tuna and salmon over the past century has led to a decline in fish size and fish populations. A variety of pollutants have a detrimental effect on the health of wildlife. Pollutants affect different species in different ways so bad pollution of one may not affect another. Many pollutants come from the burning of fossil fuels and industrial emissions. This has direct and indirect effects on wildlife health and their environment. For example, high levels of sulfur oxides can damage plants and prevent their growth. Sulfur oxides also contribute to acid rain, which harms both the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Other pollutants such as smoke, ozone, and particles deplete the atmosphere. Heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, and mercury naturally occur at low levels in the environment, but if consumed in high doses, they can cause organ damage and cancer. Human activities such as mining, smelting and various industrial processes have contributed to the increase in heavy metal levels in the environment. There are many sources of toxic chemicals including industrial wastewater, oil spills, and pesticides. There are a variety of toxic chemicals and therefore there are a lot of side effects. For example, synthetic pesticides and certain industrial chemicals are continuous pollutants. These contaminants are long-lived and can cause cancer, birth defects, immune problems, and neurological problems. Humans have a responsibility to change the climate of today that is changing the natural world. It is related to some of the above-mentioned threats to wildlife, such as habitat destruction and pollution. Rising temperatures, melting glaciers, climate change, severe droughts, frequent temperatures, hurricanes, and rising sea levels are just some of the effects of climate change. Surprises such as droughts, heat waves, severe storms, and rising sea levels directly lead to the destruction of habitats. At that time, hot weather, inclement rain and climate change will affect the range of species. Overall, the effects of climate change increase the pressure on the environment, and species that can adapt to rapidly changing conditions will disappear. Although modern-day climate change is man-made, past and present climate change is at an all-time low, leading to extinction. Habitat conservation is a practice of protecting the habitat in order to protect the animals in it. This is sometimes better than focusing on one species; especially if the species in question has specific living needs or is living in an area with many other endangered species. The latter is true of species that live in habitats, which are places of the world with the highest number of species. Many of these tropical areas are located in the tropics, especially in tropical forests such as the Amazon. Habitat conservation is often done by setting aside protected areas such as national parks or nature reserves. Even when the area is not made into a park or storage area, it can still be monitored and maintained. Monitoring wildlife numbers is an important part of conservation because it allows managers to gather information about the status of endangered species and to measure the effectiveness of management strategies. Monitoring can be local, regional, or wide-ranging, and may involve one or more different demographics. Metrics commonly collected during surveillance include population numbers, geographical distribution, and genetic diversity, although many other metrics may be used.

Acknowledgement

None

Conflict of Interest

None