A Case Study of Native Plants at Industrially Contaminated Area in Bhopal and Their Tissue Culture Approach for Phytoremediation
In phytoremediation techniques,experiments were done with normal soil-grown or hydroponically grown plants. In recent days, more and more effort is directed toward research to understand and improve the performance of plants in remediation technologies, the number of results obtained with the help of in vitro plant cell and tissue cultures is rapidly increasing.This review focuses on the report of various phytoremediation technologies, paying special attention to removal of pollutants from soil and the application of in vitro systems for basic research in the role of plants for the remediation of contaminated sites, and in the improvement of their effectiveness. Present study was conducted in Govind pura industrial area having heavy metal polluted soil. Extensive botanical survey was carried out in that area for selection of heavy metal accumulated plants, which can be used for phytoremediation of soil. Techniques of Plant tissue culture like callus culture, cell suspension culture, and hairy root culture are applied frequently in phytoremediation research as model plant systems.Tissue culture is a powerful tool that gives the possibility to grow millions of cells under in vitro conditions, and to understand physiological information about the behavior of the plant cells under stress conditions. Plant tissue culture and molecular genetics have opened new avenues in plant improvement. Screening and selection at the plant cell level has established plant clones with increased tolerance or resistance in salt, heat, cold, drought, disease, insects, heavy metals and herbicides. Plant cell and tissue culture is considered an important tool for fundamental studies that provide information about the plant-contaminant interactions, it also helps to forecast plant cell responses towards environmental pollutants, and redesign the plants with improved characteristics for phytoremediation. Plant tissue culture is used to study the interactions among plants and pollutants under in vitro conditions.
Ashwini A Waoo, Swati Khare and Sujata Ganguly
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