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Dental and Clinical Dentistry 2019: Canine impactions - surgical and orthodontic considerations - Abu-Hussein Muhamad - University of Athens


The permanent canines are the foundation of an esthetic smile and functional occlusion. Factors that interfere with its development and eruption had serious consequences on esthetics, function and stability of stomatognathic system. Many authors speculated about the cause of impacted mandibular canines. These causes include inadequate space, super numeracy teeth and premature loss of the deciduous canine, excessive crown length, hereditary factors and functional disturbances of the endocrine glands, tumors, cysts and trauma.

 Abu-Hussein Muhamad 

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