Immunohistochemical Activities and Anti-Helmintic of Blue Green Algae in Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Albino Micey
parasitological markers were determined to evaluate the antischistosomal activity of BGA. In addition, the morphological changes of S. mansoni adult worms were detected by scanning electron microscopic examination after treatment of S. mansoni infected mice with 100 mg/kg BW BGA alone or combined with 250 mg/kg BW PZQ. Results showed that treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with BGA, PZQ or in combination led to a significant decrease in the weight of liver and spleen as compared with those of S. mansoni-infected mice. Meanwhile, administration of the BGA, PZQ or in combination significantly reduced the total worm burden a significant decrease in ova count/g of liver and intestine. Both BGA and/ or PZQ showed a remarkable effect on the oogram pattern in liver and intestine. The decrease in angiogenesis was most evident in the group receiving the combination of BGA and PZQ where differences in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were significantly less in the sinusoids. The electron microscopy showed a swelling, vacuolization, fusion of the tegumental ridges and loss or shortening of the spines on the tubercles, erosion, cracks and peeling of S. mansoni adult worm after treatment with BGA. This study revealed that BGA illustrated a remarkable antischistosomal activity through inhibition of angiogenesis that required to the schistosomiasis and by deteriorating action on the adult worm evidenced by scanning electron microscopy.
Gamalat Y Osman, Azza H Mohamed, Omyma AM Maghrabi, Ayman E Elkenawy, Tarek A Salem and Alshimaa M Elmalawany