Laboratory Animal Models to Mimic Human Sepsis: A Review
Inflammation is a protective measure taken by body against exogenous and endogenous pathogens. It is a transient mechanism that resolves with removal of pathogenic agent, resulting in re-gain of body homeostasis. But this transient protective mechanism transforms into destructive tissuedamaging response, if dysregulated. Such a condition is called as systemic inflammatory response syndrome which further leads to multiple organ failure and ultimately death, if untreated. In order to understand the physiology, mechanism of sepsis and to test the potential therapeutics for its treatment, a suitable animal model is required. Various laboratory animal models have been developed to mimic human sepsis in laboratory, primarily rodents. Some of these commonly used models include injectable models i.e., toxaemia models and bacterial infection models and surgical ‘immune barrier disruption models’ i.e., cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP). In the present review, these models have been reviewed with respect to their advantages and disadvantages in mimicking human sepsis.