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Research Article Open Access

RNA-Based Therapeutics: A Future in Cancer Immunotherapy


Ribonucleic acids are fundamental molecules in biology, essential for the coding, regulation and expression of genes and have recently been a source for the development of therapeutic applications in various human diseases, especially cancers, due to the advantages of high safety and efficiency along with easy synthesis. Recent trends and technologies based on microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNA (siRNAs) and messenger RNA (mRNA) based vaccines highlight the various ways RNAs can increase or decrease new protein expression in cells and how this can be applied in biomedical fields as a treatment of human cancers. However, these ribonucleic-based technologies all pose their own unique set of challenges, especially regarding the safe delivery of these molecules into cells. In this review, we summarise the latest applications and progress of miRNA, siRNA and, finally, mRNA-based technologies in cancer and discuss the prospects and limitations of these fields as novel strategies for the targeted therapy of cancers with the help of nanoparticle delivery vectors. As the most recent emerging cancer therapy and ribonucleic acid technology, mRNA vaccines, in particular, have a vast potential for future applications due to mRNA vaccines providing specific, safe and tolerable treatments compared to other cancer treatments

Rachel Lou

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