Received date: 18 January 2015 Accepted date: 23 February 2015
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Though traditional systems used in development of various dosage forms to deliver the drugs have been in use, the evolution and modern trends in the science and technology insists the pharmaceutical companies to focus on the novel approaches. The Novel drug delivery systems have many advantages over the conventional methods. This commentary article on NDDS tries to provide answers to the following questions: What is meant by NDDS and various technological advancements in drug delivery systems to improve therapeutic efficiency, compliance and bioavailability? What are the applications of nanosystems in NDDS? And how does NDDS business in emerging markets like India contribute to the global business of pharmaceuticals?
Implants, Liposomes, Microspheres, Nanoparticles, micelle
Novel medication conveyance frameworks are intended to attain to reproducible energy over an augmented time of time in the dissemination and persistent conveyance of medications at unsurprising. The most discriminating focuses in this field are wellbeing and change in medication adequacy. Besides, medicate conveyance framework particularly concentrate on the amalgamation of target treatment i.e., the medications will discharge their dynamic fixings just in the target region of the body so for this situation the arrival of the medication inside a time of time will principally controlled through its detailing. So for this situation the focused on treatment will outline in a manner that it will achieve its planned site of activity without being in contact with the host barrier component.
New thoughts on controlling the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-particular harmfulness, immunogenicity, bio distinguishment, and viability of medications were produced. These new techniques, frequently called medication conveyance frameworks (DDS), are taking into account interdisciplinary methodologies that consolidate polymer science, pharmaceutics, bio conjugate science, and sub-atomic science. The most well-known courses of medication organization incorporate Oral course, parenteral course, Transdermal course and Inhalation course . The critical changes in clinical adequacy, persistent agreeability, expansion of item life through control discharge plans and also financial contemplations, for example, diminished recurrence and expense of the regulating the medication are driving the interest for superior, flexibility and controlled-discharge systems. This made the novel medication conveyance frameworks as one of the quickest developing section in the pharmaceutical organizations. To deliver the drugs to their specific target tissues, drug carriers like liposomes, micelles, vesicles, dendritic polymers, nanoparticles, liquid crystals, microspheres, Implants etc., are used.
Liposomes are vesicles comprising of a hydrophobic lipid bilayer film imitating that of numerous sorts of natural cells . The system of medication conveyance by liposomes is inactive dissemination through the layer and uptake of the vesicles by other lipid bilayer structures. A novel class of earthenware liposomal nanoparticles, cerasomes, has been functionalized with fluorescently-labeled antibodies on their surfaces which go about as homing ligands, guarantee awesome capability of acknowledging multi-reason shrewd vehicles for pin-point conveyance of a show of payloads at a nanoscale. The adjusted liposome is a compelling approach to target heart, liver, kidney, cerebrum, lungs and bone . Regardless, with the advancement of liposome innovation, liposomes intervened medication conveyance will assume a more vital part in clinical environment later on. The principle inconvenience of liposome is that it is difficult to cross most customary pellicle hindrances because of their forced size.
Microspheres are sometimes referred to as micro particles. Microsphere is a term used for small spherical particles, with diameters in the micrometer range (typically 1μm to 1000 μm (1mm)). Various microsphere formulations were prepared using solvent evaporation method. Glass microspheres are a radiopharmaceutical of high efficiency and radiochemical purity with a satisfactory number of particles of the required size which gives good results for applications in radiotherapy where the radiochemical purity for radiopharmaceutical products must be higher than 95% . Radio embolization represents an effective, repeatable and palliative therapy for patients with primary and secondary liver cancers [5, 6]. Intranasal mucoadhesive microspheres to increase the bioavailability and reduce the dosing frequency of the drug [7 - 9]. Liquid biochip refers to multiple microspheres diagnostic technique which is based on principle of coding analytes by microspheres [10, 11].
The word “nanoparticles” refers to nanostructures particulated, with variable shape, but with at least one dimension in the “nano” scale, that is lower than 100 nanometers (nm).Nanoscale drug delivery technologies offer advantages such as increased bioavailibity, extended drug half-life and reduced off-target toxicities. Furthermore, the new generation of therapeutic nanoparticles is inherently multifunctional: combining active drug compound with selective targeting moieties and, in many cases, imaging agents that permit localization by standard x-ray, magnetic resonance (MR) or positron emission tomography (PET) technologies. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were used for controlled delivery of various hydrophilic or hydrophobic active agents. Later advances in the MSNs surface properties such as surface functionalization and PEGylation rendered them as a promising drug delivery vehicle for cancer treatment . Polymer systems offer immense flexibility in customization and optimization of nanocarriers to efficiently deliver new therapeutics and provide an integral step in aiding their progression to clinical practice .
Polymeric micelle formulations
They are the excellent drug carriers which contains inner hydrophobic core and outer hydrophilic corona. The inner core is capable of solubilizing lipophilic substances and it is stabilized by hydrophilic polymer chains which are towards aqueous environment. The tumor-targeting efficiency of micelle-encapsulated drugs can be further enhanced by introducing targeting ligands into a micellar formulation to allow for active targeting of tumors. The versatile nature of carbonate based copolymers offers many opportunities to develop multifunctional polymeric micelles that can be employed in targeted delivery of anticancer agents and tumor imaging to improve cancer therapy.
Implants are the polymeric devices which are used for the sustained drug release or to target high drug concentrations to the surrounding area of target tissue . These are usually applied when chronic therapy is indicated in situations like chemical castration in prostate cancer treatment, in hormones replacement. The Implants are highly viscous liquids or semisolid formulations which are directly placed in the body fluids, injected or fabricated with biodegradable polymers. Implants are also used for long term delivery of proteins.
The Micro electromechanical system (MEMS) based Implantable drug delivery system follows these criteria. MEMS technology involves integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronic elements on common silicon subtract through micro fabrication technology .