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Different Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties Of PSidium guajava

Ch. Subba Rao*, Durga aruna R

Department of Pharmacy, Vagdevi College of Pharmacy, Gurazala, AP, India

*Corresponding Author:
Ch. Subba Rao
Department of Pharmacy, Vagdevi College of Pharmacy, Gurazala, AP, India

Received: 04 May 2015 Accepted: 27 May 2015 Published: 02 June 2015

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry

Abstract

Antimicrobial Activity is defined as the action of drugs which are used to kill microorganisms or inhibits their growth. Antimicrobials are grouped into antibacterials, Antifungals, Antivirals, Antiparasitics etc. The Medicinal plants are of awesome esteem in the field of treatment and cure of sickness. Throughout the years, experimental examination has extended our insight into the concoction impact and organization of the dynamic constituents which focus the therapeutic properties of plants. Tannins are now and again used to treat harms from toxic substance oak or from honey bee stings, bringing on moment alleviation. Tannins have indicated potential hostile to viral, antibacterial and against parasitic impacts.

Keywords

Antimicrobial activity, Tannin, Wound healing activity, Antibacterial activity, Antiinflammatory activity

Short Communication

Introduction

India is an old legacy of customary prescription. Materia medica of India gives a great deal of data on the old stories practices and customary prescription. In view of different indigenous framework including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani.

Tannin

The expression "tannin" by expansion is generally connected to any vast polyphenolic compound containing adequate hydroxyls and other suitable gathesrings, (for example, carboxyls) to shape solid edifices with proteins and different macromolecules. The mixes are generally disseminated in numerous types of plants, where they assume a part in security from predation, and maybe additionally in development regulation.

Classification of Tannin

Tannin are classified into three groups

Hydrolysable tannin

Non-hydrolysable tannin

Pseudo tannin

Pseudo tannin are low atomic weight mixes connected with different mixes. They don't answer gold whipper skin test not at all like hydrolysable and dense tannin. (At the point when gold blender skin or bull skin is dunked in HCl& treated with 1% FeSO4 arrangement, in the wake of washing with water it gives a blue/ dark shading). They are found in tea and espresso moreover.

Nature has given a phenomenal storage facility of solutions for cure all the afflictions of humankind. In antiquated days, all the medication utilized was from common sources, especially from plants and plants keep on being an imperative wellspring of new medications even at this point. The significance of natural, synthetic and pharmacological assessment of plants determined specialists utilized as a part of the treatment of human infirmities has been progressively perceived in the most recent decades.

The Ethnobotanical studies and old stories asserting inspected that the leaves of the plant Psidium guajava Linn. are utilized for calming action. Psidium guajava Linn.(Myrtaceae) is an across the board plant in India and ordinarily utilized for germicide, anthelmintic, injury recuperating and mitigating movement. It has a high substance of tannin substances.

Ethnobotanical Review

Plant Profile

Botanical source - Psidium guajava Linn.

Family - Myrtaceae.

Common names - Guava, common guava, yellow guava, apple guava.

Parts used - Fruits, leaf, flower, root and bark.

Distribution

Psidium guajava Linn. is a typical vegetation cover by streets and in waste places in India. Guava is a tropical and semitropical plant. This tree is developed all over India chiefly in states like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Bihar.

pharmacognosy-phytochemistry

Therapeutic Properties

Anti-diabetic,Anti-inflammatory,Anti-diarrhoeal,Antiseptic,Anti-oxidant,Antispasmodic,CNS activity, Coughs, Conjunctivitis, Gout and Anti allergy.

Sustenance: Leaf concentrate utilized as a part of skin brightening items.

Restorative: It is high in vitamin-C and vitamin-An organic product can be eaten as canned, jellied, squeezed or powdered structures.

Antimicrobial movement brightening items: Warm decoction of leaves is utilized as vaginal wash (after labor) or douche because of germicide properties.

For skin ulcers, pruritic or contaminated injuries: Decoction of leaves or unripe organic products wash and leaf poultice on the injury for wound purifying. It is likewise prevalently utilized for the injury recuperating of circumcision wounds.

Fables utilizes

Astringent, Anthelmintic, Anti fitful and Antiseptic properties. Leaves are utilized for wound and toothache. Decoction or imbuement of crisp leaves is utilized for twisted cleaning to counteract disease and to encourage mending. Warm decoction of leaves as utilized for sweet-smelling showers. Bubble for 4-6 table spoons of hacked leaves in 18 ounces of water strain and cool and utilized for looseness of the bowels.

Phytochemical Studies

Separation of tannin fractions from Psidium guajava leaf and bark.

Preliminary Phytochemical screening.

Identification of tannin by TLC and HPTLC.

Estimation of Tannin by spectrophotometry.

Pharmacological Studies

Antiinflammatory study

Wound healing activity

Antibacterial activity

Phytochemical Studies

Extraction

The leaves and bark of Psidium guajava Linn. were shade dried and coarsely powdered. Around 300 gm of powdered medication was separated with ethanol by frosty maceration technique after 72 hrs of maceration it was sifted. After complete extraction the extraction was thought by refining off the dissolvable and afterward dissipated to dryness under lessened weight utilizing vaccum streak evaporator. At that point it was separated progressively with solvents of expanding extremity, for example, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and watery its to yield its portion. All the parts were dissipated under vaccum its shading and textures were watched. Rate yield was ascertained broadcasting live dried premise.

Phytochemical Screening

The leaf and bark tannin parts were subjected to subjective phytochemical test for recognizable proof of constituents.

Test for Alkaloids

Mayer`s test

A squeeze of dried concentrate was taken and 2 ml of weaken hydrochloric corrosive was included, blended, sifted and to the filtrate, maybe a couple drops of Mayer`s reagent were included. Arrangement of white accelerate demonstrates the vicinity of alkaloids.

Dragendorff`s test

A squeeze of dried concentrate was brought and treated with 2 ml of 2% acidic corrosive, blended completely and separated. To the filtrate 2 drops of Dragendorff`s reagent was included. Arrangement of orange shading chestnut encourage shows the vicinity of alkaloids.

Hager`s test

A squeeze of dried concentrate was brought and treated with a drop of Hager`s reagent, development of yellow accelerate demonstrates the vicinity of alkaloids.

Wagner`s Test

A squeeze of dried concentrate was brought and treated with a drop of Wagner`s reagent. Development of chestnut shading accelerate shows the vicinity of alkaloids.

Estimation of tannin by Psidium guajava leaf and bark powder with UV spectrophotometry system

Tannin substance was evaluated by taking 70% ethanolic concentrate of was controlled by taking after the okwu system. 500 mg of 70% ethanolic concentrate was set in a 100 ml recepticle. 50 ml of the same dissolvable was included and shaken for 1 hr in a mechanical shaker. This was separated into a 50 ml volumetric jar and made up to the imprint. At that point, 5 ml of the filtrate was pipette out into a tube and blended with 3 ml of 0.1m Fecl3 in 0.1N Hcl and 0.008M potassium ferro cyanide. The absorbance was measured in a spectrophotometer at 630 nm wavelength. A clear specimen was arranged and the shading created was red at the same wavelength. An alternate convergance of tannic corrosive was utilized as standard.

Chromatography

Thin layer chromatography

Thin layer chromatography is an imperative investigative apparatus in the partition, distinguishing proof and estimation of diverse segments. Here the standards of detachment are adsorption and segment. the stationary stage goes about as an adsorbent. Contingent upon the specific sort stationary stage, its planning and utilization with distinctive dissolvable can be accomplished on the premise of allotment or a blend of part and adsorption.

Antioxidant Studies

Oxidation is fundamental to numerous living life forms for the generation of vitality to fuel natural procedures. Free radicals can prompt a mixture of physiological and biochemical injuries and instigate degenerative ailments, for example, coronary corridor malady, maturing and growth.

Albeit all living beings have against oxidant protection and repair frameworks that have developed to ensure them against oxidative harm, these frameworks are inadequate to keep the harm completely. Cancer prevention agents are such substances that can defer or confine oxidative cell oxidizable substrates. Enthusiasm for discovering actually happening cancer prevention agents in sustenances or medications to supplant engineered cell reinforcements has expanded impressively, given that manufactured cell reinforcements are being limited because of their symptoms.

• Free radical scavenging activity

• Nitric oxide scavenging activity

Pharmacological Studies

Psidium guajava exhibits different pharmacological activities. Those are

• Anti-Inflammatory Activity

• Wound healing activity

• Antibacterial Activity

• Antiseptic

• Anthelmintic

• Anti-inflammatory activity

The test concentrate showed layer adjustment impact by hindering hypotonicity actuated lyses of erythrocyte film. The erythrocyte film is similar to the lysosomal layer and its adjustment suggests that the tannin division should balance out lysosomal films. Adjustment of lysosomal layer is critical in constraining the incendiary reaction by keeping the arrival of lysosomal constituents of enacted neutrophil, for example, bactericidal compounds and proteases, which bring about additional tissue aggravation and harm upon additional cell discharge. In spite of the fact that the precise component of the layer adjustment by the concentrate is not known yet, hypotonicity impelled hemolysis may emerge from shrinkage of the cells because of osmotic loss of intracellular electrolyte and liquid parts. The test part may hinder the procedure, which may fortify or upgrade the efflux of these intracellular parts. Since tannin rich division was discovered to be more viable in settling the RBC layer against hypo tonicity impelled haemolysis contrasted with tannin rich portion in the control of irritation, tannin part may restrain the activating of aggravation in skin inflammation.

Antibacterial activity

Staphylococcus aureus, a high-impact creature, more often than not includes in shallow diseases inside of the sebaceous unit. Staphylococcus aureus are the objective locales of hostile to skin inflammation tranquilizes These variables give a potential focus to treatment.

The antibacterial impacts of the tannin leaf and bark was assessed by circle dispersion system against staphylococcus aureus. The siginficant movement was seen in leaf and bark was discovered to be in focus subordinate way contrasted and control and the Zone of restraint (mm) was discovered to be huge for Tannin leaf and bark.

Wound healing activity

Wound recuperating, an unpredictable succession of occasions, is started by the boost of harm to the tissues. A positive jolt may come about because of the arrival of a few variables by injuring of tissues. Cutaneous injury repair is joined by a requested and quantifiable grouping of organic occasions beginning with wound conclusion and advancing to the repair and renovating of harmed tissue.

Antioxidant study

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical delivered in mammalian cells, included in the regulation of different physiological procedure. Nitric oxide is an extremely precarious animal types under vigorous conditions. It responds with oxygen to create stable item nitrate and nitrite through intermediates. It was evaluated by utilizing Griess reagent and as a part of vicinity of test compound which was the scrounger. In this study the nitrite created by the brooding of arrangements of sodium nitroprusside in standard phosphate saline cradle at 250c was diminished by the ethanolic concentrate of Psidium guajava (EEPG) and tannin part of Psidium guajava (TFPG) contrasted with ethanolic concentrate and tannin division delivered a decent noteworthy free radical searching property which may be because of the vicinity of tannin (gallic corrosive).

DPPH test is viewed as a legitimate system to assess rummaging action of cell reinforcements, since the radical compound is stable and does not need to create as in other radical examines. DPPH radicals respond with suitable diminishing specialists and after that electrons get to be combined off and the arrangements loses shading stoichiometrically with the quantity of electrons taken up. such reactivity has been generally used to test the capacity of plant concentrate to go about as free radical foragers. DPPH examine of ethanolic concentrate and tannin division demonstrated a dosage ward increment in the rate of hindrance of free radicals.

The tannin division was found to contain more aggregate tannin content. It likewise demonstrated a decent cancer prevention agent potential.

The mitigating, antibacterial, cell reinforcement and wound mending exercises is presumably because of the vicinity of tannin (gallic corrosive). Further studies need to be seclude singular tannin and investigate its organic strength by different preclinical and clinical trials of the secluded mixes.

Taking into account the cancer prevention agent limit of the tannin rich parts of leaf and bark some piece of Psidium guajava, further screened for wound action. The Psidium guajava is having the property of antibacterial, pain relieving, calming properties it is referred to in the Indian arrangement of drug. Thus, the pharmacological studies are intended to figure out the strength of Psidium guajava in mitigating, antibacterial and wound recuperating models.

The Tannin division demonstrates the most extreme rate of assurance in mitigating, greatest zone of hindrance in antibacterial action against staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore it demonstrates the most extreme tensil quality on the injuries in extraction model.

Tannin enhanced portion of leaf and bark bit Psidium guajava demonstrates great adequacy in different pharmacological exercises.

The antibacterial impacts of tannin leaf and bark of Psidium guajava and their detailing were assessed by circle dissemination strategy against staphylococcus aureus. The different concentrates and its demonstrated antibacterial movement in focus subordinate way. The aftereffects of all tried part and concentrates were practically identical with that of standard Erythromycin.

References