Ethno-veterinary Practices for Animal Health and the Associated Medicinal Plants from 24 Locations in 10 States of India | Open Access Journals

Ethno-veterinary Practices for Animal Health and the Associated Medicinal Plants from 24 Locations in 10 States of India

Balakrishnan Nair MN*, Punniamurthy N and Kumar SK

TransDisciplinary University, School of Health Sciences, Veterinary Ayurveda group, Bangalore-560106, Karnataka, India

*Corresponding Author:
Balakrishnan Nair MN
TransDisciplinary University, School of Health Sciences
Veterinary Ayurveda Group, 74/2 Jarakabandekaval, Attur Post
Yelahanka, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
E-mail: nair.mnb@tdu.edu.in; nairunni2003@yahoo.co.uk

Received date: May 03, 2017; Accepted date: June 13, 2017; Published date: June 19, 2017

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Abstract

Introduction: The objectives of this study were to collect the ethnoveterinary practices for prevention and cure of animal health conditions and associated flora from healers and knowledgeable dairy farmers and to rapidly assess these practices for their safety and efficacy. Methods: Participatory rural appraisal and matrix ranking are used for prioritization of the animal health conditions. The documented formulations were rapidly assessed for their safety and efficacy using rapid assessment methodology. Results: Local people used 248 species of plants belonging to 80 families for prevention and cure of animal health conditions. Out of 441 formulations using various plants, 353 are safe and efficacious.The majority of these medicinal plants belong to Leguminosae (27 species with 20 genera), Apiaceae (nine species), Cucurbitaceae (8 species), Euphorbiaceae (11 species) and Poaceae (14 species). Leaves are commonly used (34.42 %) followed by roots, (11%), fruits (9.74%),seeds (8.76%), barks (8.76%, whole plant (3.57%) stem (3.25%) and rhizome (2.6%). Average expenditure incurred for animal health care by a household was Indian Rupees 726.00 with western veterinary treatment and Indian Rupees 42.4 with ethno-veterinary practices, saving Indian Rupees 684 per episode. Conclusion: There is large amount of cost effective traditional knowledge and resources for animal health available in the community.Ethno-veterinary practices are effective alternative to antibiotics and other chemicals drugs in livestock management.

Keywords

Ethno-veterinary, Natural/herbal remedies, Livestock health, medicinal plants, antibiotic residue, antibiotic resistance

Introduction

High cost and indiscriminate use of antibiotics and other veterinary drugs and their residues in the milk and other animal products are serious problems of present veterinary services in India. The presence of drug residues results in development of drug resistant microorganisms that are difficult to treat [1,2] and the world is looking for safer herbal alternatives. The objectives of this study were to collect the ethno-veterinary practices for prevention and cure of animal health conditions and associated flora from healers (healers are local community based traditional health practitioners who have acquired their ecosystem and ethnic community specific traditional health knowledge through intergenerational learning. They practice healing within the respective communities based on the social legitimacy and status within their societies) and knowledgeable dairy farmers and to rapidly assess these practices for their safety and efficacy. The present paper reports the documentation and rapid assessment of the ethno-veterinary practices from 24 locations in 10 states of India.

Materials and Methods

The Details of the Project Area

The study area involved 27 blocks, 51 Grama Panchayat having 71 villages/wards with 12,114 households and 70,449 people (Figure 1). Table 1a and Table 1b show the names of the states, districts, blocks, villages and the household covered. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and matrix ranking is used for prioritization of the animal health conditions. Documentation and rapid assessment to find the safety and efficacy of documented formulations were conducted using the methodology suggested earlier [3,4].

S.No. Name of the Organization State District Block Gram panchayat selected Ward/village selected No. of House holds Population covered
1 AAAS Maharastra Kurkheda Gewardha- Gowardhan 2 2 50 1690
2 ARM Orissa Keonijhar Bauripada, Nulung 2 3 46 1986
3 BIRDS Karnataka Belgaum Gokak 1 1 10 1012
4 CRIED Tamil Nadu Madurai Sedapatty 1 1 49 2500
5 GRM SW Orissa Mayurbhanj Baripada 3 3 50 3389
6 IIT-DELHI Delhi - - 4 6 53 4346
7 JASS Andhra Pradesh Chttor Kuppam 5 9 49 4190
8 JJVS Rajasthan - Girwa 4 6 32 761
9 KCT Kerala Kottayam Lalam 1 2 90 7100
10 LEAD Tamil Nadu Parambalur Alathur 1 2 23 3182
11 MACFAST Kerala Pathanamthitta Ranni 1 2 58 2400
12 NEEDS Tamil Nadu Virudhunagar Srivilliputtur 3 4 59 2975
13 PETS Tamil Nadu Mdurai Alanganallur 4 2 51 3688
14 PLANT Tamil Nadu Tiruvallur Minjur 1 2 50 2296
15 REACH Tamil Nadu Vellore Tirupattur 3 3 30 4120
16 SAMBAND Orissa Myurbhanj Thakurmunda 3 6 61 3293
17 SAWARD Kerala Kozhikode Kunnamkulam 1 2 94 4918
18 SESA Jharkhand Palamu Patan 1 1 50 2280
19 SHIDA Tamil Nadu Theni Chinnavulapuram 1 4 45 186
20 SLT Taml Nadu Dharmapuri Morapur 4 4 40 2056
21 TPSVMS Tamil Nadu Theni Chinnamanur 1 1 53 3476
22 VM Chatisgarh Bastar Kondagaon 2 2 45 2135
23 VOICE Tamil nadu Thoothukudi Pudur 1 2 46 870
24 WSSS Kerala Wayanad Manathavadi 1 1 50 5600
    10 21 25 51 71 1184 70,449

Table 1a: Details of the area, number of household selected and the population of the area covered during the study.

No. Name and address of the Organizations
1 Alternative Rural Movement (ARM), Chandan Hajuri Road, In front of S.C.S College,Puri, Dist-Puri (Orissa), Pin-752001, E-mail: arm_badapanda@yahoo.com
2 Amhi Amachya Arogya Sathi (AAAS), At post Taluka Kurkheda, Dist. Gadchiroli-444209, Maharastra, E-Mail:arogyasathi@rediffmail.com
3 Belgaum Integrated Rural Development Society (BIRDS), Tukkanatti–591224 Gokak, Dist.Belgaum, Karnataka, E-mail:birds@naganur.com
4 Peoples Education And Training Society, Greenland,k.C. Patty, Erampatty P.O.Alangallur Via, Madurai Dt- 625 501 Tamil Nadu,E-mail:petsocity@rediffmail.com
5 Scheduled Tribes and Hill Dwellers Development Association Trust (SHIDA) Chinnaovulapuram, Chinnamanur (Via), Uthamapalyam (Tk), Theni District, Thamilnadu-625515, E-mail:scheduled_tribes@rediffmail.com
6 Gram Swaraj, Ward No.16, Kamala Nehru Girls School Road, Baripada Dist, Mayurbhanj, Orissa - 757001,deepak_gramswaraj@hotmail.com
7 Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Centre for Rural Development & Technology, IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, E-Mail: Vetgopi97@gmail.com
8 Integrated Development through Envionmental Awakening (IDEA) *#4C, Maharaja Towers, R.K.Mission Road, Vishakapatnam-530003, AP. E-Mail: gowtham_shankar@hotmail.com
9 Jagranjan Vikas Samithi (JJVS), Sapita Road, Bedla, Udaipur-313011, Rajasthan, E-mail: jagranjan@datainfosys.net
10 Jana Abhyudaya Seva Sangham, Paipalyam Village, Kuppam Mandal, Chittoor Dist., Andhra Pradesh, E-mail: jassshivraj@gmail.com
11 Kaimal Charitable Trust, Chakkampuzha P.0, Via Arunapuram, 686 574, E-Mail:pknkaimal@yahoo.com
12 League for Education And Development (LEAD) 8/40, First Street, Sri Ramapuram,Srirangam, Tiruchirapalli–620006,Tamil Nadu, E-Mail:radha_lead@rediffmail.com
13 Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies & Bodhana Department of Phytomedicine and Technology & Sciences, Thiruvalla, Kerala, E-Mail: mulamoottil @hotmail.com
14 Needs 12A Mudukku Street, Srivilliputtur- 626 125, Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu, E-Mail: Needs_raja@yahoo.co.in
15 PLANT, No 22/10, Kumaran Street, Vijayalakshmipuram,Ambatoor, Chennai 600 053, E-Mail:plant_suresh@yahoo.com
16 Rural Education and Community Health Society (REACH), 203 Jai Beem Nagar, Pachal Post,Tirupattur-63602, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, E-Mail: Jeynirmala83@gmail.com
17 Samband, No.2926/5198, Jayadev Nagar Road, (Behind CRAC computer), Bhubaneswar-751002, Orissa, SAWARD, Poovathuparampu, P.O.Calicut 673008, E-Mail:swardteam@gmail.com
18 SAWARD, Poovathuparampu, P.O.Calicut 673008, E-Mail: swardteam@gmail.com
19 SESA, ITO Road, Redma, Daltonganj, Palamau, Jharkand-822101,E-Mail: Sesa_enviornment@yahoo.co.in
20 Sustainable Life Trust (SLT), 3/645, Kaliappa chetty Street, 3rd Cross, Pidamaneri, Dharmapuri –636 703, Tamil Nadu, E-mail:sustain_trust@yahoo.co.in
21 Tamil Nadu Paramparya Sidha Vaidya Maha Sangha Madurai Dist, Tamil Nadu,E-Mail: Poorveegam07@gmail.com
22 Vikas Mitra, Samaja Sevi Sanstha, Thasila para, Millan Chowk,Kondagaon, Bastar, Chattisgarh-494226,
23 VOICE, 5/106, Indiranagar colony, Vempoor,P.O. thuthukudi Didt. Tamil Nadu, E-Mail: Zgnanasundariram@yahoo.co.in
24 Wayanad Social Service Society, Post Box No. 16, Mananthavady, Wayanad–670645 Kerala State,E-Mail: wsss@satyam.net.in

Table 1b: Organizations that helped in the study.

veterinary-sciences-Location-map

Figure 1: Location map of 10 states where the study is undertaken.

Results

Four hundred and forty one Ethno-veterinary practices were documented for 52 prioritized conditions out of which 353 practices were assessed as safe and efficacious. Two hundred and forty eight plant species belonging to 80 families were used in 441 formulations. Table 2 shows the botanical names of the documented plant species arranged in alphabetic order with parts used for the animal health practices. Majority of these medicinal plants belong to Leguminosae (27 species with 20 genera), Apiaceae (9 species), Cucurbitaceae (8 species), Euphorbiaceae (11 species) and Poaceae (14 species). The parts used are leaves (34.42 %) roots, (11%), fruits (9.74%), seeds (8.76%), barks (8.76%, whole plant (3.57%), stem (3.25%) and rhizome (2.6%) (Figure 2).

S.No. Plant name Family Parts used Disease conditions for which it is used
1. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Malvaceae Leaves Retention of placenta (ROP)
2. Abrus precatorius L. Fabaceae Leaves Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
3. Abutilon indicum(Link)Sweet.  Malvaceae Leaves Diarrhoea, Dysentery
4. Acacia sp. Fabaceae Bark Snake bites, poisoning
5. Acacia caesia (L.) Willd. Fabaceae Leaves Bloat
6. Acacia catechuWilld. Fabaceae Wood Foot and Mouth Disease
7. Acacia nilotica(L.) Delile Fabaceae Bark Foot and Mouth Disease
8. Acalypha indica L. Euphorbiaceae Leaves Poisonous bite, Foot disease, Mastitis, Endoparasites, Snoring
9. Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae Whole Plants Fever, Poisonous bite, Dermatitis
10. Acorus calamus L. Acoraceae Rhizome Intestinal parasites, Dysentery, Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis, Wheezing, Ranikhet disease, indigestion, Bloat, Retention of placenta, Calf scour
11. Justicia adhatoda(L.) Nees Acanthaceae Leaves Fever, Pest, Cough/cold
12. Aegle marmelos(L.)Corrêa Rutaceae Leaves Foot rot, Diarrhoea,
13. Aerva lanata( L.)  Juss.ex Schult. Amaranthaceae Leaves Eye Infection
14. Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Fabaceae Bark Foot and Mouth Disease
15. Allium cepaL.  Amaryllidaceae Bulbs Jaundice, Bronchitis, Indigestion, ROP, Diarrhoea, Infertility, Snoring, Mastitis
16. Allium sativum L. Amaryllidaceae Bulbs External parasite, Fever, Ephemeral fever, Haemorrhagic septicaemia (as blood poisoning), Helminthiasis, Bloat, Foot and Mouth Disease , Fowl Pox, Ranikhet disease
17. Aloe vera (L.)Burm.f. Asphodelaceae Leaves Mastitis, Poisonous bite, Bites, Dysentery Foot disease, Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis, Intestinal worms
18. Alstonia venenataR. Br Apocynaceae Leaves Mastitis
19. Alternanthera sessilis(L.) R.Br.ex DC Amaranthaceae Root Cough, Infection, Maggot wounds
20. Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthaceae Root Diarrhoea
21. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Roxb.) Blume ex Decne Araceae Rhizome Fowl Pox
22. Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae Fruit Ranikhet disease
23. Andrographis paniculata(Burm.f.)Wall. exNees Acanthaceae Whole Plants Intestinal worms, Poisonous bite Diarrhoea, Indigestion, Cough, infection, Fever, Foot and Mouth Disease, Dermatitis
         
24. Anethumgraveolens L. Apiaceae   Mastitis,disease
25. Anisomelesmalabarica(L.) R.Br. ex Sims Lamiaceae Root Worm infestation, (Helminthiasis)
26. Annona reticulateL. Annonaceae Leaves Maggot wounds
27. AnnonasquamosaL. Annonaceae Leaves Maggot wounds, Worm infestation, (Helminthiasis), Foot and Mouth Disease , Ephemeral fever viral, Tick infestation, Ranikhet disease
28. Anogeissuslatifolia(Roxb.ex DC.) Wall.ex Guill.& Perr. Combretaceae Gum Maggot wounds
29. Aphanamixispolystachya(Wall.)R.N. Parker Meliaceae Bark Fracture
30. Arachishypogaea L. Fabaceae Oil Bloat
31. Areca catechuL Arecaceae Nut Intestinal worms
32. AristolochiabracteolataLam. Aristolochiaceae Stem and Leaves Intestinal parasites, Poisonous bite, Infertility,
33. Aristolochiaindica L. Aristolochiaceae Root, Whole, Plant Fever, Mastitis, Intestinal worms, Dysentery, Diarrhoea, Neutralizing poison
34. Aristolochia tagala CHAM Aristolochiaceae Root Hydrocyanic acid poisoning
35. Artemisia vulgarisL. Asteraceae Leaves External parasite
36. Artocarpusheterophyllus Lam. Moraceae Leaves, Petiole Bloat, indigestion
37. Artocarpushirsutus Lam Moraceae Leaves, Petiole, Inflorescenceash Indigestion, Bloat, Maggot wounds
38. Asparagus racemosus Willd Liliaceae Root and Leaves Mastitis
39. Azadirachtaindica A.Juss. Meliaceae Leaves, Oil Maggot wounds, Ulcers/wounds, Mastitis, Foot and Mouth Disease, Fowl Pox, leg wound, Ephemeral fever viral, Poisonous bite, Dermatitis, Infertility, Pox
40. Balanitesroxburghii Planch. Balanitaceae Tubers Siluria
41. Bambusabambos(L.)Voss Bambusaceae Splinters for Bandage, Leaves Fracture, Diarrhoea
42. Bambusa vulgarisSchrad.ex J.C.Wendl Poaceae Leaves Diarrhoea, Indigestion
43. Barringtoniaacutangula(L.)Gaertn. Baringtoniaceae Fruit Mastitis
44. Bassialongifolia Sapotaceae    
45. Bauhinia acuminate L. Caesalpiniaceae Bark Phuria/injury
46. Bauhinia racemosaLam. Caesalpiniaceae Leaves Eye disorders
47. Boerhaviadiffusa L. Nyctaginaceae Roots &Leaves Fever, Ephemeral fever, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Prolapse of uterus
48. Bombaxceiba L. Bombacaceae Seeds Diarrhoea
49. Borassusflabellifer L Arecaceae Jaggery ROP, Bloat
50. Boswelliaserrate Triana& Planch. Burseraceae Gum Resin (Jhuna)  
51. Brassica nigra L. Brassicaceae Seeds Calf scour, Ranikhet disease, Bloat, Indigestion
52. Brassica compestrisL. Brassicaceae Seeds  
53. Brideliaretusa(L.)A.Juss. Euphorbiaceae Bark, Roots Repeat breeding
54. Brideliascandens (Roxb.) Willd. Euphorbiaceae Bark Fowl Pox
55. BryoniaepigaeaRottl. Cucurbitaceae Root Poisoning
56. Bryophyllumpinnatum(Lam.)Oken Crassulaceae Leaves Bloat,
57. Buteamonosperma(Lam.)Taub Fabaceae Stem, Seed Calf scour, Worm infestation
58. Calotropis gigantean (L.)W.T.Aiton Asclepiadaceae Bark , Latex Horn fracture, Foot disease
59. Cannabis sativaL Cannabinaceae Leaves Uterus prolapse, Ranikhet disease, Dyspepsia
60. Canthiumparviflorum Lam. Rubiaceae Root Bark Dysentery
61. Capsicum annuumL. Solanaceae Fruits FMD, Mastitis, Bloat
62. Capsicum minimum L. Solanaceae Fruit Fever, Ephemeral fever, Haemorrhagic septicaemia
63. Cardiospermumhalicacabum L. Sapindaceae Leaves Fever
64. CareyaarboreaRoxb. Lecythidaceae Bark Diarrhoea, Indigestion Bloat, Fracture
65. Carica papayaL. Passifloraceae Seeds, Latex, Fruit Helminthiasis, Ranikhet disease, Diarrhoea
66. Carumcarvi L. Apiaceae Seeds Dyspepsia, Neo-natal diarrhoea
67. Cassia fistula L. Caesalpiniaceae Bark, Fruits FMD, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Fever, Ephemeral fever, Bloat, Jaundice, Arthritis
68. Cassia obtuse Roxb. Caesalpiniaceae Leaves Endo-parasites
69. Cassia sp (Cassia sophera L) Caesalpiniaceae Bark Snake bite, Poisoning
70. Cassia auriculata L. Caesalpiniaceae Leaves Fracture, Calf scour, Diarrhoea, Wounds
71. Centellaasiatica(L.)Urban. Apiaceae Whole Plants Fowl Pox
72. Centratherumanthelminticum (L.) Kuntze Asteraceae Seeds Fowl Pox, FMD, Indigestion, Bloat
73. Cinnamomumcamphora(L.)J.Pres. Lauraceae Resins Mastitis, Maggot wounds, FMD, Ulcers/wounds
74. Cinnamomumverum J.Pres. Lauraceae Bark FMD
75. Cissampelospareira L. Menispermaceae Root Diarrhoea, wounds, FMD
76. Cissusquadrangularis L. Vitaceae Whole Plant Bloat, Wounds, Fracture
77. Citrulluscolocynthis (L.) Schrader Cucurbitaceae Leaves, fruits Poisonous bite
78. Citrus limon(L.)Burm.f Rutaceae Leaves, Fruit, Stem Fever, Helminthiasis, Mastitis, Pox
79. Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Rutaceae Whole Mastitis, Dermatitis
  Swingle   Plant,  
80. Citrus reticulate Blanco Rutaceae Stem Diarrhoea, indigestion
81. Clausenaexcavate Burm.f. Rutaceae Root Diarrhoea
82. Cleomegynandra L. Cleomaceae Leaves Mastitis
83. Clerodendruminerme (L.) Gaertn. Verbenaceae Leaves Ticks/Lice
84. Cocciniagrandis(L.)Voigt. Cucurbitaceae Leaves Mastitis, Loss of appetite
85. Cocculus hirsutus L. Menispermaceae Leaves Diarrhoea, Hydrocyanic acid poisoning, Indigestion, Dermatitis, Ulcers/wounds, Maggot wounds, Mastitis, Bloat, Diarrhoea, ROP
86. Cocosnucifera L. Arecaceae Husk, Skull, Tender Coconut, Milk, Oil Hydrocyanic acid poisoning, indigestion, Dermatitis, Wounds, Ulcer, Diarrhoea, Ranikhet disease, Repeat breeding, Bloat
87. Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. Lamiaceae Leaves Bloat, diarrhoea
88. Coleus barbatus(Andrews) Benth. Lamiaceae Leaves Bloat
89. Commiphorawightii( Arn.)Bhandar Burseraceae Gum Resin Fowl Pox
90. Corallocarpusepigaeus (Rottl.) C.B.Clark Cucurbitaceae Root Dysentery
91. Corallocarpusepigaeus (Rottler) Hook.f Cucurbitaceae   Neutralizing poison, Pest
92. Coriandrumsativum L. Apiaceae Seeds, Leaves Fever, Ranikhet disease,Diarrhoea
93. CostusspeciosusKoen ex. Retz. Costaceae Rhizome Ranikhet disease, Diarrhoea
94. Cucumissativus L. Cucurbitaceae Leaves, Tender Fruits, Flower, Conception
95. Cuminumcyminum L. Apiaceae Seeds Diarrhoea, Bloat, Indigestion, Dysentery, Jaundice, Infertility, ROP, Fowl Pox
96. Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. Zingiberaceae Root Diarrhoea
97. Curcuma aromatica Salisb. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Thrift
98. Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Mastitis, Diarrhoea, Ephemeral fever, Indigestion, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Bloat, Mastitis, Hydrocyanic acid poisoning, Foot rot, Ranikhet disease, Maggot wounds, FMD, Constipation, Foot disease, Fowl Pox, Ranikhet disease, ROP, Ill-Thrift
99. CuscutareflexaRoxb. Convolvulaceae Branches Diarrhoea, Indigestion
100. CycleapeltataHook. f.&Thoms Menispermaceae Roots, Leaves Helminthiasis, snake poison
101. Cymbopogoncitratus(DC.)  Stapf. Poaceae Leaves Diarrhoea, Indigestion
102. Cymbopogonflexuosus( Nees ex Steud.)W.Watson Poaceae Root Indigestion
103. Cynodondactylon(L.)Pers. Poaceae Leaves Poisonous bite
104. CyperusrotundusL Cyperaceae Rhizome Worm infestation (Helminthiasis)
105. Daturametel L. Solanaceae Leaves, Un Ripened Fruit, Bark Fever Dysentery (or)Hemorrhagic enteritis, (or)Hemorrhagic enteritis, Wounds Ulcers
106. Delonix elata (L) Gamble. Caesalpiniaceae Leaves wounds
107. Desmostachyabipinnata(L.)Stapf. Poaceae Leaves Prolapse of uterus
108. DichrostachyscinereaWight et Arn. Mimosaceae Stem Bark Calf scour
109. DiospyroschloroxylonRoxb. Ebenaceae Root, Bark Diarrhoea, Dog bite
110. DolichosbiflorusL. Fabaceae Seeds Diarrhoea, Indigestion, Retention of Placenta (R OP), Infertility
111. Eclipta prostrate (L.)L. Asteraceae Leaves Diarrhoea
112. Elephantopusscaber L, Asteraceae Leaves Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Maggot wounds
113. Eleusinecoracana Gaertn. Poaceae Seeds FMD
114. Elytrariaacaulis (L.f.) Lindau Acanthaceae Leaves Foot disease
115. Embeliaribes Burm.f. Myrsinaceae Seeds Worm infestation (Helminthiasis)
116. Enicostemma axillare Lam. Raynal Gentianaceae Leaves, Whole Plant Mastitis, Bloat, Intestinal worms
117. Enicostemmahyssopifolium (Willd.) Verd. Gentianaceae Leaves Thrift
118. EnicostemmalittoraleBlume Gentianaceae Stem&Leaves Neutralizing poison
119. Erythrina indica Lam. Fabaceae Seeds Worm infestation(Helminthiasis)
120. Erythrina variegateL. Fabaceae Leaves, Bark FMD, Diarrhoea
121. Eucalyptus Myrtaceae Leaves, Oil Ranikhet disease, Diarrhoea
122. Euphorbia hirta L. Euphorbiaceae Root Mastitis
123. Euphorbia neriifolia L. Euphorbiaceae Latex Haemorrhagic septicaemia,
124. Euphorbia pilulifera, L. Euphorbiaceae Leaves Diarrhoea
125. Ferula alliaceaBoiss Apiaceae Resin Indigestion, Thrift
126. Ferula assa-foetidaL. Apiaceae Resin Prolapse of uterus, Bloat, Wheezing, indigestion
127. FicusbengalensisL. Moraceae Leaves ROP
128. Ficushispida L. Moraceae Unripe Fruits, Exudate Diarrhoea, Maggot wounds
129. Ficustinctoria G.Forst. Moraceae Fruit Dysentery\Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis
130. Flueggeavirosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voigt Euphorbiaceae Husk Diarrhoea
131. Foeniculumvulgare Mill. Apiaceae Seeds Diarrhoea
132. Garciniagummi-gutta(L.) Roxb. Clusiaceae Dried Fruits Bloat, Indigestion, Fever
133. Glycosmismauritiana (Lam.) Tanaka Rutaceae Root Ranikhet disease
134. Gossypiumhirsutum L. Malvaceae Seeds ROP
135. Gymnemasylvestre R. Br. Asclepiadaceae Leaves Pest, Endo-parasites
136. Hemidesmusindicus(L.)R.Br. Asclepiadaceae Root Diarrhoea
137. Hemionitisarifolia(Burm. f.) T. Moore Polypodiaceae Root Worm infestation (Helminthiasis)
138. Holarrhenaantidysenterica (L) Wall. Apocynaceae Leaves Diarrhoea
139. Holopteleaintegrifolia (Roxb.) Planch Ulmaceae Leaves Thrift
140. Centellaasiatica(L.)Urban Apiaceae Leaves Mastitis
141. Hypolytrumnemorum(Vahl)Spreng Cyperaceae Root Worm infestation(Helminthiasis)
142. Hyptissuaveolens(L.)Poit. Lamiaceae Leaves Conjunctivitis
143. Imperata cylindrical (L.)P. Beauv. Poaceae Whole Plant Prolapse of uterus
144. IndigoferaaspalathoidesDC. Fabaceae Leaves Theft
145. Ipomoea mauritianaJacq. Convolvulaceae Tuber Worm infestation (Helminthiasis)
146. JatrophaglanduliferaRoxb. Euphorbiaceae Leaves Plant poisoning
147. Justiciaadhatoda L. Acanthaceae Leaves Poisonous bite
148. Kaempferiagalanga L. Zingiberaceae Rhizome Indigestion, Worm infestation, Helminthiasis, Ranikhet disease
149. Lawsoniainermis L. Lythraceae Leaves Calf scour, Mastitis, Diarrhoea
150. Leeaasiatica(L.) Ridsdale Leeaceae Root Fracture
151. LepidiumsativumL. Brassicaceae Seed Mastitis
152. Leucasaspera (Willd.) L. Lamiaceae Root, Whole Plant,Leaves Helminthiasis, Bloat, FMD, Ulcers/wounds, Jaundice, Repeat breeding Poisonous bite, Ticks/Lice, Pest, thrift, Fever
153. LimnophilaheterophyllaBenth. Scrophulariaceae Twigs Diarrhoea, Indigestion
154. Linumusitatissimum L. Linaceae Oil Eye infection
155. Litseaglutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob Lauraceae Leaves Diarrhoea, Indigestion
156. Luffaacutangula(L.)Roxb. Cucurbitaceae Leaves Mastitis
157. LuffaamaraRoxb. Cucurbitaceae Leaves Mastitis
158. Madhucaindica J. F. Gmel. Sapotaceae Bark Fracture, Siluria, Indigestion, Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Bloat
159. Madhucalongifolia(J.Konig)J.F.Macbr Sapotaceae Tender Leaves Dysentery
160. Mangiferaindica L. Anacardiaceae Stem, Bark, Leaves, Siluria
161. Meliaazedarach L. Meliaceae Leaves Uterus prolapse, Repeat breeding
162. Mesuaferrea L. Clusiaceae Root Diarrhoea, Indigestion
163. Momordicacharantia L. Cucurbitaceae Young Fruits & Roots Diarrhoea, Worm infestation, (Helminthiasis)
164. Morindatinctoria Roxb. Rubiaceae Leaves And Bark Fever
165. Moringaoleifera Lam. Moringaceae Bark, Seed, Indigestion, Dog bite, Helminthiasis, Diarrhoea,
      Root, Fruit, Leaves. Thrift,
166. Murrayakoenigii(L.) Sprengel Rutaceae Leaves Repeat breeding,
167. Musa paradisiaca L. Musaceae Flower, Fruits Mastitis, Constipation, Diarrhoea, FMD; leg wound, Dysentery
168. Myristicamalabarica Lam. Myristicaceae Fruits Black quarter
169. NaregamiaalataWight &Arn. Meliaceae Whole Plant Mastitis
170. Nicotianatabacum L. Solanaceae Leaves/Dry Leaves Bloat, Maggot wounds, Foot rot, Ulcers/wounds, Foot rot, Ulcers/wounds,
171. Nigella sativa L. Ranunculaceae Seeds Thrift
172. Nyctanthesarbor-tristis L. Oleaceae Leaves Ephemeral fever
173. Ocimumbasilicum L. Lamiaceae Leaves Mastitis, FMD
174. Ocimumcanum Sims. Lamiaceae Leaves Maggots wound, Bloat
175. Ocimum sanctum L. Lamiaceae Leaves Fowl Pox, Mastitis, Ranikhet disease, Fever, Thrift Poisonous bite, Bloat Ulcers/wounds, Wheezing, Helminthiasis
176. OleadioicaRoxb. Oleaceae Tender Leaves Foot rot
177. Operculinaturpethum(L.) Silva Mans Convolvulaceae Root Worm infestation(Helminthiasis)
178. Oryzasativa L. Poaceae Grains Diarrhoea, Fowl Pox, Ranikhet disease, Dysentery (or) Hemorrhagic enteritis, ROP
179. PaspalumscrobiculatumL. Poaceae Dried Grass Ephemeral fever
180. Pavoniarepanda (Roxb. ex Sm.) Spreng. Malvaceae Root Fracture
181. Pedalium murex L. Pedaliaceae Leaves Repeat breeding, ROP
182. Pennisetumamericanum (L.) Leeke Poaceae Tender Leaves Malakundhu(A Fever type)
183. Pergulariadaemia( Forssk.)Chiov. Asclepiadaceae Leaves FMD, Mastitis, Intestinal parasites, Wounds, Fowl Pox
184. PeumusboldusMolina Monimiaceae Leaves Neonatal diarrhoea
185. PhyllanthusamarusSchum.&Thonn. Euphorbiaceae Leaves, Whole Plant Fowl Pox, Jaundice, Eye infection, Indigestion
186. Phyllanthusemblica L. Euphorbiaceae Fruits Indigestion
187. Piper betle L. Piperaceae Leaves Helminthiasis, Bloat, Wheezing
188. Piper chaba Trel.&Yunck. Piperaceae Fruits Indigestion
189. Piper longum L. Piperaceae Fruits FMD, Fever, Ephemeral fever, Tuberculosis, Fowl Pox, indigestion
190. Piper mullesuaBuch.-Ham. ex Piperaceae Fruits Indigestion, Prolapse of
  D.Don     uterus
191. Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Fruits Fever, Ephemeral fever, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Indigestion, Helminthiasis, Ranikhet disease, Dermatitis, Fowl Pox, Tuberculosis, Eye infection, Cough/cold, Snoring
192. Plumbagoindica L. Plumbaginaceae Root Worm infestation(Helminthiasis)
193. Plumbagozeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae Swollen Roots Fever, Ephemeral fever, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Maggot wounds
194. Polygala arvensisWilld. Polygalaceae Leaves Neutralizing poison, Pest
195. Pongamiapinnata(L.)Pierre Fabaceae Seed , Oil Helminthiasis, FMD, Black quarter
196. Psidiumguajava L. Myrtaceae Unripe Fruits Diarrhoea, Hydrocyanic acid poisoning, Calf scour
197. Psoraleacorylifolia L. Fabaceae Seeds Diarrhoea, Worm infestation, Timpanists (Bloat)
198. Pterospermumacerifolium(L.)Willd. Sterculiaceae Bark Mastitis
199. Punicagranatum L. Punicaceae Young Leaves, Rind of Fruit Diarrhoea
200. QuercusinfectoriaOliv. Fagaceae Galls Foot disease, FMD, Black quarter
201. Randiadumetorum Lam. Rubiaceae Rhizome Poisonous bite
202. Randiaspinosa (THUNB.) POIR. Rubiaceae Fruits, Seeds Fever, Haemorrhagic septicaemia
203. Raphanussativus L. Brassicaceae Tuber ROP
204. Rhaphidophorapertusa (Roxb.) Schott Araceae Stem Dermatitis
205. Rhynchosia minima (L.)DC. Fabaceae Whole Plant Calf scour
206. RicinuscommunisL. Euphorbiaceae Seeds, Fruit, Oil Mastitis, Bloat, Difficult birth, Intestinal worms, Fracture, Arthritis
207. Saccharumofficinarum L. Poaceae Jaggery Indigestion, ROP
208. SantalumalbumL. Santalaceae Leaves ROP
209. Schleicheraoleosa(Lour.)Merr. Sapindaceae Oil Haemorrhagic septicaemia, infected ear, FMD, Magot wounds Ephemeral fever
210. Semecarpusanacardium L. Anacardiaceae Leaves Cold, Ephemeral fever, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, FMD, Maggot wounds; Bloat, Repeat breeding, Mastitis, ROP, Foot disease
211. Sennaalata(L.)Roxb.   Leaves Dermatitis
212. Sennaauriculata(L.)Roxb.   Leaves Fracture, Calf scour, Diarrhoea, Wounds
213. Sennahirsuta (L.) H.S.Irwin&Barneby   Leaves Restlessness
214. Sennaoccidentalis(L.)Link.   Leaves Eye infection
215. Sesamumindicum L. Pedaliaceae Seeds, Leaves, Oil ROP, mastitis, FMD, Bloat, infertility
216. Sesamumorientale L. Pedaliaceae Seeds ROP, FMD
217. Shorearobusta Roth Dipterocarpaceae Resins, Seeds Diarrhoea, Indigestion, Mastitis, Ephemeral fever
218. Sidaacuta Burm.f. Malvaceae Leaves Diarrhoea, ROP, Dysentery, Intestinal worms
219. Solanummelongena L. Solanaceae Root Infection
220. SolanumsurattenseBurm.f. Solanaceae Unripe Fruit Cough, infection
221. SolanumvirginianumL., Solanaceae Root Arthritis
222. Sorghum vulgarePers. Poaceae Grains Diarrhoea
223. Soymidafebrifuga (Roxb.) A. Juss. Meliaceae Bark Fracture
224. Sphaeranthusindicus L. Asteraceae Areal Parts Worm infestation
225. Spondiaspinnata (L. f.) Kurz Anacardiaceae Bark Mastitis
226. SterculiaurensRoxb. Sterculiaceae Leaves ROP
227. Strychnosnux-vomicaL. Loganiaceae Fruits FMD
228. Syzygiumcumini(L.) Skeels Myrtaceae Fruits, Tender Leaves Dysentery
229. TamarindusindicaL. Caesalpiniaceae Fruits FMD, Constipation, Bloat, Constipation, Jaundice
230. Tephrosiapurpurea(L.)Pers. Fabaceae Leaves Bloat
231. Terminaliaarjuna(Roxb.) Wight&Arn. Combretaceae Stem\Bark Horn fracture, Fracture
232. Terminaliabellirica(Gaertn.)Roxb. Combretaceae Leaves Loss of appetite, Black quarter
233. Terminaliachebula Retz Combretaceae Fruits Constipation, Bloat, FMD, Black quarter, Bloat
234. Thotteasiliquosa(Lam.) Ding Hou Aristolochiaceae Root Fever
235. Tinosporacordifolia(Thunb.) Miers Menispermaceae Leaves, Stem, Root Bloat, FMD, Mastitis
236. Trachyspermumammi Sprague Apiaceae Seeds ephemeral fever
237. Tribulusterrestris L. Zygophyllaceae Seeds Mastitis
238. Tridaxprocumbens L. Asteraceae Leaves Eye Infection, Horn fracture
239. Triticumaestivum L. Poaceae Grains Diarrhoea
240. Urginea indica Kunth Liliaceae Bulbs & Tubers Foot rot
241. VernoniacinereaLess. Asteraceae Leaves Fowl Pox
242. Vignamungo (L.)Heppe Fabaceae Germinate d Seeds, Leaves Repeat breeding, Fracture
243. Vignaunguiculata(L.)Walp. Fabaceae Leaves Repeat breeding, Mastitis
244. Vitexnegundo L. Verbenaceae Leaves Bronchitis, Cold, Mastitis, Fever, FMD, Poisonous bite
245. Withaniasomnifera(L.)Dunal Solanaceae Root Repeat breeding, Fever
246. Wrightiatinctoria( Roxb.)R.Br. Apocynaceae Bark And Leaves Ephemeral Fever, Fever
247. Zingiberofficinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae Rhizome Fever, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Indigestion, Helminthiasis Indigestion, Bloat, Calf scour, Wheezing, Tuberculosis, Ephemeral fever
248. Ziziphusmauritiana Lam. Rhamnaceae Dry Stem Ephemeral Fever

Table 2: Shows the botanical name, family which it belongs, parts used and the disease conditions for which it is used.

veterinary-sciences-percent-plant

Figure 2: Shows the percent of plant parts used.

Discussion

The veterinary diseases such as mastitis, foot and mouth disease (FMD), bloat, diarrhoea, ephemeral fever, indigestion and parasitic infection substantially affect the farmer’s income. Ethno-veterinary practices have great potential to address these as EVP has decentralized local resource-based applications that are safe, efficacious and cost effective. It also can lead to reduction of use of antibiotics and other chemical drugs and associated residues in the animal products and microbial resistance.

The local communities have the traditional medicinal knowledge and they have their own unique way of identifying medicinal plants, developing formulations and using them to treat a particular disease. They were developed in a culture and perception that is different from that of Western science. In the indigenous knowledge systems the evaluation is ‘systemic’, whereas in Western system it is ‘atomic’ or cellular [1,2]. Presently there are no correlations or poorly established correlations between these medical systems. The logic of folk knowledge lacks the theoretical rigor of Ayurveda or western medicine but there is an inherent relationship between classical textual knowledge and folk knowledge and therefore they (Ayurveda/Mrugayurveda) are used as a tool for assessment of safety and efficacy of the documented ethno-veterinary practices [1,2].

The urgent need of documentation and revival of these traditional veterinary practices is highlighted in the light of the benefits they provide.

Conclusion

There is large amount of cost effective traditional knowledge and resources for animal health available in the community and communities use these practices regularly. EVP can be an effective alternative to antibiotics and other synthetic chemicals in livestock management.

Acknowledgement

The authors thank Department of science and Technology, Government of India for financial support during this work. We wish to thank the local healers and farmers who have shared their valuable knowledge. We also acknowledge all 24 organizations for their cooperation and contribution and all our colleagues for the support during this work.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

References