Nanocarrier Mediated Drug Delivery
Department of Pharmacy, SSJ College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Prashanthi G
Department of Pharmacy, SSJ College of Pharmacy
Vattinagulapally, Rajendranagar mandal
Hyderabad, Telangana 500075, India.
Received date: September 01, 2016; Accepted date: September 14, 2016; Published date: September 26, 2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology
Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology which made it new with greatly increased possibilities in the field of medicine. Nanomedicine aims in delivering a set of clinical devices, research tools ranging from the applications of nanomaterials in medicine to Nanoelectronics. Nanotechnology has improved the chances of delivering drug to specific site in the biological system thereby improving the bioavailability of the drug and reducing the side-effects, they have improved pharmacological and therapeutic properties of drugs. These nano-sized objects called nanoparticles has typical properties and functions, their small size, improved surface and solubility will continue to create new biomedical applications. This rapidly growing field requires interdisciplinary research to design and develop devices that can target and treat chronic diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of Nanomedicine, Nano carriers in drug delivery and types of Nanomedicine systems and their application.
Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Nanoparticles, Nanocarriers
Nanotechnology is the manipulation of functional systems at the molecular level that are characterized by distinctive physical, optical and electronic properties extending from materials science to biomedicine [1-3]. One of the debut research areas of nanotechnology is Nanomedicine which uses nanotechnology to specific medical discoveries for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases [4,5].
Nanomedicine aims in delivering a set of clinical devices, research tools ranging from the applications of nanomaterials in medicine to Nanoelectronics. Nanoparticles have high surface area, containing encapsulated, absorbed, dispersed drugs with unique characteristics that can help in enhancing the performance in a various dosage forms thereby providing rapid onset of action and improved bioavailability. Nanotechnology can be implemented in interventions of new drug delivery systems that can expand highly in drug markets. The new drug delivery procedures should enable pharma companies to reformulate present drugs, thereby increasing the shelf life of products and improving the performance of drugs by increasing efficacy, safety and bioavailability and ultimately reducing healthcare expenses [6-8].
Types of Nano Carriers in Drug Delivery
A nanocarrier is material size ranging from diameter 1–1000 nm which is used as a transport medium for drug. Some of the commonly used nanocarriers are micelles, carbon-based materials, polymers, liposomes. Nanocarriers are currently being investigated for their potential use in drug delivery and their role in chemotherapy. Types of nanocarrier systems are listed and some are described below [9-12].
• polymeric nanoparticles
• lipid-based carriers
• carbon nanotubes
• gold nanoparticles
Liposomes drug delivery system can enhance the bio distribution and pharmacokinetic properties of the drug. Liposome is a phospholipid bilayer filled with internal aqueous core of drug. The use of internal aqueous core is ideal as it helps in delivery of hydrophilic drugs;the phospholipid bilayer allows the hydrophobic drug encapsulation [13-17]. Encapsulation of the drug helps to reduce the unintended side effects of commonly used drugs in liposomal formulations like cardiotoxicity and peripheral neurotoxicity. Above all liposomes used in cancer therapy are 100 nm in diameter and this size aids them to explode from circulation through the vascular tumor sites there by exerting effective therapy. Liposomes help in slow and sustained release of drug and they are able to reduce unintended side effects of chemotherapeutic agents by changing the distribution of entrapped drug [18-22].
Dendrimer are nanosized repetitively branched structures which are also called as Cascade molecules or arborols. These molecules are characterized by structural perfection 9 [23-31]. Dendrimers provide higher bioavailability and biocompatibility;it is easy to predict the pharmacokinetic parameters of dendrimer. Hence, dendrimers can be potential and unique carrier system for anticancer drug. Dendrimers have varied applications in gene delivery, Blood substitution [32-38]. The three methods used for delivering drugs by dendrimers are the drug can be covalently attached to the peripheral layer of the dendrimer to form prodrugs of dendrimer, in second method the active drug is coordinated to the functional groups peripherally via ionic interactions, in third method the dendrimer is made as unimolecular micelle [39-43].
Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical allotropes of carbon with unique properties that are important for nanotechnology, material science, optics and electronics. They belong to fullerene structural family [44-46]. Carbon nanotubes provides variety of potential applications in Nanomedicine, they have unusual biological and chemical properties monothilic structures and property to coordinate with any functional group [47-51]. They are divided in to two categories, single walled carbon nanotubes and multi walled carbon nanotubes [52-55].
Micelles are colloidal dispersions with particle size ranging from 5 to 100 nm of diameter. They consists of amphiphiles or surfactants which are made of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail, they exists as monomers in true solutions at low concentration [56-61]. By increasing the amphiphiles concentration aggregated particles are formed which are called as micelle, the concentration above which micelle formation occurs is called as critical micelle concentration. Polymer micelles are in smaller size and provide excellent advantage compared to liposomes [62-77]. Polymeric micelles are used widely for targeted drug delivery in chronic diseases like cancer which showed less chemo toxic effects [78-80].
Polymer-drug conjugates are used in diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, they involves the use of both liposomes and micelles in drug delivery system. Polymer drug molecules have been resulted in excellent bioavailablility and improved efficacy of the drug at targeted site [81-88]. They have been extensively used in can cancer therapy due to their unique property of multidrug resistance (Table 1) [89-93].
|Types of nanocarrier systems
||Example of Drugs
||Pegylated liposomal of doxorubicin, Daunorubicin,Irinotecan
||polyamidoamines, Amino-terminated PAMAM
||Curcumin micelles, Cisplatin, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin
Table 1: Examples of Drugs delivered using Nanocarriers.
The clinical accomplishment and drug delivery efficacy of various nanocarrier in various treatment and therapies of chronic diseases have made them promising drug delivery systems. Nanocarriers improve the lolocalization of drug thereby providing targeted drug delivery between the drug and biological system. In cancer therapy nanocarriers help in offering advanced methods of tumor recognition with high efficacy and decreased side effects. On-going research by scientists and medical personnel in nanotechnology will produce new inventions in the field of nanocarriers. In the near future, nanotechnology will show a greater result in biomedicine. The great advantage of Nanomedicine is use of distinctive properties of nanosized materials in addressing most of the challenging clinical diagnosis and therapy [94-100].
- Lokesh BVS and Kumar PV. Enhanced Cytotoxic Effect of Chemically Conjugated Polymeric Sirolimus against HT-29 Colon Cancer and A-549 Lung Cancer Cell Lines. J Pharm Drug Deliv Res. 2015;4:188.
- Bajaj L and Sekhon BS. Nanocarriers Based Oral Insulin Delivery. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2014;3:132.
- Pathrose B, et al. Stability, Size and Optical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Prepared by Femtosecond Laser Ablation. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2016;5:188.
- Khosroshahi ME and Tajabadi M. Characterization and Cellular Fluorescence Microscopy of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles Functionalized with Third Generation Nano-molecular Dendrimers: In-vitro Cytotoxicity and Uptake study. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2016;5:186.
- Alvi S, et al. Survivability of Polyethylene Degrading Microbes in the Presence of Titania Nanoparticles. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2016;5:185
- Gigena J, et al. Investigating the Uptake and Some Subcellular Effects of Manufactured Goethite Nanoparticles on Lumbriculusvariegatus. Expert Opin Environ Biol. 2016;5:128.
- Raza A, et al. In-situ Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nanoparticles Assisted with Green Laser to Kill S. enterica in Water. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2016;5:183.
- Ma L, et al. Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles as Photothermal Transducing Agents for Cancer Treatment. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2016;5:182.
- Salehi M, et al. An Alternative Way to Prepare Biocompatible Nanotags with Increased Reproducibility of Results. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2016;5:181
- Selvarani S, et al. OcimumKilimandscharicum Leaf Extract Engineered Silver Nanoparticles and Its Bioactivity. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2016;5:179.
- Adesina SK, et al. Nanoparticle Characteristics Affecting Efficacy. J Pharm Drug Deliv Res. 2016;5:145.
- EL-Moslamy SH, et al. Bioprocess Development for Chlorella vulgaris Cultivation and Biosynthesis of Anti-phytopathogens Silver Nanoparticles. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2016;5:177.
- Shehata MM, et al. Influence of Surfactants on the Physical Properties of Silica Nanoparticles Synthesis via Sol-Gel Method. J NuclEneSci Power Generat Technol. 2016;5:148.
- Barua A, et al. Sustainable and Effectual Bio Fabrication of Gold Nanoparticles for Screening of Milk Adulteration. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2015;4:173.
- Kumar S, et al. Synthesis, Characterization, and Formation Mechanism of Nanoparticles and Rods of 1,5-Bis(2-Halophenyl) Penta-1,4-Dien-3-One. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2015;4:171.
- Anitha P and Sakthivel P. Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles using TridaxProcumbens and its Anti-Inflammatory Activity against Human Blood Cells. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2015;4:170.
- Ramani T, et al. Synthesis, Characterization of Phosphine, Phosphine Oxide and Amine Stabilized Platinum Nanoparticles in Organic Medium. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2015;4:167.
- Yari A, et al. Sensing Element Based on a New Nanoparticle to Develop a Carbon past Electrode for Highly Sensitive Determination of Ag+ in Aqueous Solutions. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2015;4:166.
- Panchangam RBS and Dutta T. Engineered Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Anticancer Therapeutics. J Pharm Drug Deliv Res. 2015;4:127
- Sengupta J, et al. Immuno-Potentiating Activity of Gold Nanoparticles on Experimental Animal Models. J NanomaterMolNanotechnol. 2015;4:165
- Jibowu T, et al. Magnetic Mirtazapine Loaded Poly (propylene glycol) bis(2aminopropylether) (PPG-NH2, MW_2000) Nanocarriers for Controlled Drug Release. J Material Sci Eng. 2016;5: 259.
- Vaze OS. Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers (Liposomes and Micelles) in Cancer Therapy. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:e138.
- Álvarez–Bautista A, et al. Poly(N–Isopropylacrylamide–Co–Acrylic Acid) Smart Nanocarriers for Drug Release: A Study of Theophylline Delivery. J Mol Genet Med. 2015;9:196.
- Gajbhiye KR, et al. Targeted Brain Delivery of Bioactive Molecules Using Nanocarriers. J BioequivAvailab. 2015;7:112-122.
- Ramdani L, et al. Multifunctional Curcumin-Nanocarriers Based on Host-Guest Interactions for Alzheimer Disease Diagnostic. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2015;6:270.
- Misra R, et al. Design Considerations for Chemotherapeutic Drug Nanocarriers. Pharm Anal Acta. 2014;5:279.
- Gambino D. Metal-Organic Frameworks in Nanotherapeutics: Development of Novel Drug Nanocarriers for Conventional and Nuclear Oncology. J NanomedBiotherapeutDiscov. 2012;2:e120.
- Chen Y, et al. Indocyanine Green-Loaded Nanocarriers as Contrast Agents for NIR Fluorescent Optical Imaging. J NanomedNanotechol. 2012;3:e122.
- Karavelidis V and Bikiaris D. New Biocompatible Aliphatic Polyesters as Thermosensitive Drug Nanocarriers. Application in Targeting Release Pharmaceutical Systems for Local Cancer Treatment. J NanomedicNanotechnol. 2012;3:134.
- Shakeel F, et al. Solubility and Dissolution Improvement of Aceclofenac using Different Nanocarriers. J BioequivAvailab. 2009;1: 039-043.
- Khan DR. The use of Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy. J Cancer SciTher. 2010;2: 058-062.
- Fakoury MA. Case Report of Huge Esthesioneuroblastoma. Otolaryngol (Sunnyvale). 2016;6:256.
- Wiest I, et al. Clinical Evaluation of Mucin-1 (MUC1) and P16 in Laryngeal Cancer. Otolaryngol (Sunnyvale). 2016;6:255.
- Adhikari R. Applications of Upconversion Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:e141.
- Ahmad U and Faiyazuddin Md. Smart Nanobots: The Future in Nanomedicine and Biotherapeutics. J NanomedineBiotherapeuticDiscov. 2016;6:e140.
- Benyettou F and Motte L. Nanomedicine: Towards the “Magic Bullet” Science. J Bioanal Biomed. 2016;8:e137.
- Balabathula P. Nanomedicines can Offer Improved Therapeutic Efficacy through Various Parenteral Routes of Administration. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:e136.
- Krukemeyer MG, et al. History and Possible Uses of Nanomedicine Based on Nanoparticles and Nanotechnological Progress. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2015;6:336.
- Ji HF, et al. Nanomedicine and Biotherapeutics for Antiobiotic Resistance Bacteria. J NanomedineBiotherapeuticDiscov. 2015;5:e138.
- Lenoir T and Herron P. The NCI and the Takeoff of Nanomedicine. J NanomedineBiotherapeuticDiscov. 2015;5:135.
- Li W, et al. Effects of Intracellular Process on the Therapeutic Activation of Nanomedicine. Pharm Anal Acta. 2015;6:368.
- Leary JF. Nanomedicine – Reality will trump hype! J NanomedineBiotherapeuticDiscov. 2013;4:e125.
- Narayanasamy P. Nanomedicines: Future Against Infections. ChemSci J. 2014;5:e105.
- Kazemi A, et al. The Question of Ethics in Nanomedicine. J Clinic Res Bioeth. 2014;5:193.
- VukomanJokanovic. The Deep Scientific and Philosophic Approach to the Future Nanomedicine, Given on the Base of Author Introduction in the Monograph “Nanomedicine, the Greatest Challenge of the 21st Century”. Drug Des. 2014;3:113.
- Menaa F. Global Financial Model for Responsible Research and Development of the Fast Growing Nanotechnology Business. J Bus Fin Aff. 2014;3:e139.
- Lai L, et al. Nanomedicine: Economic Prospect and Public Safety. J Develop Drugs. 2013;2:e127.
- Bell IR, et al. Nonlinear Response Amplification Mechanisms for Low Doses of Natural Product Nanomedicines: Dynamical Interactions with the Recipient Complex Adaptive System. J NanomedNanotechol. 2013;4:179.
- Krukemeyer MG and Wagner W. Nanomedicine in Cancer Treatment. J NanomedNanotechol. 2013;4:166.
- Bregni C. Nanomedicines in Cancer Therapy. J Mol Pharm Org Process Res. 2013;1:101.
- Motte L. What are the Current Advances Regarding Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine? J Bioanal Biomed. 2012;4:e110.
- Quan L. Macromolecular Nanomedicine of Glucocorticoids for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J NanomedNanotechol. 2013;4:e126.
- Ostafin AE and Batenjany MM. Nanomedicine Making Headway across the Blood Brain Barrier. J NanomedNanotechol. 2012;3:e123.
- Lin E. Novel Drug Therapies and Diagnostics for Personalized Medicine and Nanomedicine in Genome Science, Nanoscience, and Molecular Engineering. PharmaceutReg Affairs. 2012;1:e116.
- Hosseini PM, et al. Gaps in the Iranian Patenting System: A Barrier to Nanomedicine Commercialization. J NanomedBiotherapeutDiscov. 2012;2:108.
- Uckun FM. Stat3-Syk Molecular Complex as A Target for Anti- Cancer Nanomedicines. J NanomedNanotechol. 2012;3:e110.
- Peramo A. Nanomedicine in Thrombosis. J NanomedicNanotechnol. 2012;3:e106.
- Chapman M and Pascu SI. Nanomedicines Design: Approaches towards the Imaging and Therapy of Brain Tumours. J NanomedicNanotechnol. 2012;S4:006.
- Muro S. Efficient and Safe Intra-cellular Transport of Targeted Nanomedicines: are we there Yet? J NanomedicBiotherapeu Discover. 2011;1:106e.
- Tsigelny IF and Simberg D. Has the Time for Insilico Design of Nanomedicines Finally Arrived? J NanomedicBiotherapeu Discover. 2011;1:104e.
- Suh KS and Tanaka T. Nanomedicine in Cancer. Translational Medic. 2011;1:103e.
- Yun Y, et al. Nanomedicine-based Synthetic Biology. J NanomedicBiotherapeu Discover. 2011;1:102e.
- Ghosh S, et al. Gloriosasuperba Mediated Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles for Anticancer Applications. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:390.
- Heidari A. Linear and Non-Linear Quantitative Structure-Anti-Cancer-Activity Relationship (QSACAR) Study of Hydrous Ruthenium (IV) Oxide (RuO2) Nanoparticles as Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) and Anti-Cancer Nano Drugs. J IntegrOncol. 2016;5:e110.
- Alaqad K and Saleh TA. Gold and Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis Methods, Characterization Routes and Applications towards Drugs. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2016;6:384.
- Heidari A. Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacoproteomics Studies of Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) Inhibitors and Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticles as Sandwiched Anti-cancer Nano Drugs between Two DNA/RNA Molecules of Human Cancer Cells. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics. 2006;7:e153.
- Sreelakshmy V, et al. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Glycyrrhizaglabra Root Extract for the Treatment of Gastric Ulcer. J Develop Drugs. 2016;5:152.
- Israel LL, et al. Ultrasound-Mediated Surface Engineering of Theranostic Magnetic Nanoparticles: An Effective One-Pot Functionalization Process Using Mixed Polymers for siRNA Delivery. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:385.
- Yadav JP, et al. Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Synthesized Silver and Iron Nanoparticles using Aloe vera. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:384.
- Dou Z, et al. Effect of Al2O3 Nanoparticles Doping on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of CTLA Ceramics. J Material SciEng 2016;5:256.
- Kumari VG, et al. Synthesis and Characterization of Pectin Functionalized Bimetallic Silver/Gold Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Applications. J PhysChemBiophys. 2016;6: 221.
- Heydrnejad MS and Samani RJ. Sex Differential Influence of Acute Orally-administered Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on Some Biochemical Parameters in Kidney of Mice Musmusculus. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:382.
- Jibowu T. The Formation of Doxorubicin Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles using Nanoprecipitation, Double Emulsion and Single Emulsion for Cancer Treatment. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:379.
- A Heidari. Ab Initio and Density Functional Theory (DFT) Studies of Dynamic NMR Shielding Tensors and Vibrational Frequencies of DNA/RNA and Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles Complexes in Human Cancer Cells. J NanomedineBiotherapeuticDiscov. 2016;6:e144.
- Li C, et al. Development and Validation of a Method for Determination of Encapsulation Efficiency of CPT- 11/DSPE-mPEG2000 Nanoparticles. Med chem (Los Angeles). 2016;6:345-348.
- Heidari A. Pharmaceutical and Analytical Chemistry Study of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles Synthesis Methods and Properties as Anti- Cancer Drug and its Effect on Human Cancer Cells. Pharm Anal Chem Open Access. 2016;2:113.
- Heidari A. A Chemotherapeutic and Biospectroscopic Investigation of the Interaction of Double–Standard DNA/RNA–Binding Molecules with Cadmium Oxide (CdO) and Rhodium (III) Oxide (Rh2O3) Nanoparticles as Anti–Cancer Drugs for Cancer Cells’ Treatment. Chemo Open Access. 2016;5: e129.
- Kumar B, et al. Aqueous Phase Lavender Leaf Mediated Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles and Evaluation of its Antioxidant Activity. Biol Med (Aligarh). 2016;8: 290.
- Stael C and Cumbal L. Optimized Synthesis of Multicomponent Nanoparticles for Removing Heavy Metals from Artificial Mine Tailings. Biol Med (Aligarh). 2016;8: 288.
- Heidari A. Novel and Stable Modifications of Intelligent Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles as Anti-Cancer Drug in Formation of Nucleic Acids Complexes for Human Cancer Cells’ Treatment. BiochemPharmacol (Los Angel). 2016;5:207.
- Stab J, et al. Flurbiprofen-loaded Nanoparticles Can Cross a Primary Porcine In vitro Blood-brain Barrier Model to Reduce Amyloid-ß42 Burden. J NanomedineBiotherapeuticDiscov. 2016;6:140.
- Gandhi H and Khan S. Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antibacterial Activity. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:366.
- Murgueitio E, et al. Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles using Extracts of Native Fruits of Ecuador, as Capuli (Prunusserotina) and Mortiño (Vacciniumfloribundum). Biol Med (Aligarh). 2016;8:282.
- AbouAitah KEA, et al. Mesoporous Silica Materials in Drug Delivery System: pH/Glutathione- Responsive Release of Poorly Water-Soluble Pro-drug Quercetin from Two and Three-dimensional Pore-Structure Nanoparticles. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:360.
- Sivaramasamy E, et al. Enhancement of Vibriosis Resistance in Litopenaeusvannamei by Supplementation of Biomastered Silver Nanoparticles by Bacillus subtilis. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:352.
- AbouAitah KEA, et al. (2016) pH-controlled Release System for Curcumin based on Functionalized Dendritic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:351.
- Kumar P, et al. Synthesis of Dox Drug Conjugation and Citric Acid Stabilized Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery. Biochem Physiol. 2016;5:194.
- Vinoda BM, et al. Photocatalytic Degradation of Toxic Methyl Red Dye Using Silica Nanoparticles Synthesized from Rice Husk Ash. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2015;5:336.
- El-Hussein A. Study DNA Damage after Photodynamic Therapy using Silver Nanoparticles with A549 cell line. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:346.
- Yasir M, et al. Haloperidol Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Nose to Brain Delivery: Stability and In vivo Studies. J NanomedicNanotechnol. 2015;S7:006.
- Hajiyeva FV, et al. Luminescent Properties of Nanocomposites on the Basis of Isotactic Polypropylene and Zirconium Dioxide Nanoparticles. J NanomedicNanotechnol. 2015;S7:003.
- ShareenaDasari TP, et al. Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Gold (I) and (III) Ions and Gold Nanoparticles. BiochemPharmacol (Los Angel). 2015;4:199.
- Prasad CH, et al. Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol Using Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Derived from Papaya (Carica papaya) Peel extract. IndChem Open Access. 2015;1:104.
- VinczeGy, et al. Nanoheating without Artificial Nanoparticles. Biol Med (Aligarh). 2015;7:249.
- López T, et al. Ag/TiO2-SiO2 Sol Gel Nanoparticles to use in Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAI). J Material Sci Eng. 2015;4:196.
- Abdellatif AAH. Targeting of Somatostatin Receptors using Quantum Dots Nanoparticles Decorated with Octreotide. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2015;S6:005.
- Mehrotra A and Pandit JK. Preparation and Characterization and Biodistribution Studies of Lomustine Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles by Interfacial Deposition Method. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2015;6:328.
- Singh T and Jain S. Removal of Organics and Metal Ion Nanoparticles from Synthetic Wastewater by Activated Sludge Process (ASP). J Civil Environ Eng. 2015;5:182.
- Turani M, et al. Regeneration of Limbal Stem Cells in the Presence of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2015;5:318.
- Andocs G, et al. Nanoheating without Artificial Nanoparticles Part II. Experimental Support of the Nanoheating Concept of the Modulated Electro-Hyperthermia Method, Using U937 Cell Suspension Model. Biol Med (Aligarh). 2015;7:247.