PHARMACOGNOSY: FACTS AND FUTURE
Department of Pharmaceutics, Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy, Nellore
- *Corresponding Author:
- A. Divya
Department of Pharmaceutics, Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy, Nellore
Received: 16 May 2015 Accepted: 23 May 2015 Published: 30 May 2015
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Pharmacognosy, derived from the Greek words “pharmakon” (drug) and “gnosis” (knowledge), is perhaps the oldest trendy science, and customarily the study of crude medication of plant and animal origin [1,2].
The history of herbal medication is as recent as human civilization. Herbal medicines as the major remedy in ancient system of medicine are employed in medical practices since antiquity . The documents many of which are of great antiquity, unconcealed that plants were used medicinally in china, India, Egypt and Greece long before the beginning of the common era. One amongst the foremost notable living remnants is papyrus Ebers, sixty feet long and a foot wide that may be a sixteenth xerophile BC [4-8].
Pharmacognosy will be outlined because the science of biogenic or naturally derived medication, prescription drugs, and poisons, and it incorporates varied fashionable analytical techniques to evidence and internal control of crude medication in addition as pure active extracts, fractions, and elements, and even healthful foods [9-13]. Drug use from healthful plants has advanced from the formulation of crude medication to the isolation, identification, and assessment of bioactivity of active compounds in drug discovery [14,15]. Pharmacognosy involves the broad study of natural product from varied sources together with plants, bacteria, fungi, and marine organisms. Asian nation flavouring medicines are the bases of treatment and cure for varied diseases in ancient strategies like Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha [16-21].
In Asian countries, particularly for the agricultural population, flavouring medication acquire the primary selection for treatment . The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that eighty Percent of the population of some Asian and African countries presently uses flavouring medicines for a few side of primary health care [23-30].
Pharmacognosy, which accurately means that finding out medications of natural sources, has been a district of medical arts and sciences since mankind initiate to treat sicknesses [31-33]. To induce a correct perspective concerning this science that deals with plant animal, mineral and different natural medications, it's very useful to research the historical aspects of this science and to acknowledge the pioneers of this field [34-40].
During the past 50 years there is advancement in the chemical and biological techniques of analysis that has transformed research in pharmacognosy. Natural medicines are accustomed enhance human and veterinary health since past times and also the success of recent life science mostly depends on medication originally obtained from natural resources [41-50].
The conventional medical practices adopted for identification and authentication of natural remedies eventually framed the botanico-chemical approach to Pharmacognosy throughout the 19th century. However, the last 200 years witnessed a considerable metamorphosis within the principles and practices of Pharmacognosy and it's become a vital domain of recent pharmaceutical science as a multidisciplinary high-tech science of natural medicines. In a very modern context, the systematic study of natural medicines in terms of purity, potency, consistency and safety became the foremost problems in Pharmacognosy [51-56]. Moreover, most of the current day's drug discoveries are progressively adopting ancient medication based mostly approaches to extend results and to handle safety issues. Thus, Clinical Pharmacognosy, Analytical Pharmacognosy and Industrial Pharmacognosy are established as specialised and skilled offshoots of Pharmacognosy to fulfill the modern advancements within the field of Pharmacognosy [57-65].
Plant species could also be take into account as a synthesis and for the chemical compounds example proteins, carbohydrates, and fats that square measure used as food by the animals and humans, however additionally for an enormous range of compounds as well as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides etc. that exert definite physiological effects. These chemical compounds square measure principally answerable for the required useful properties [66-70].
PC has additionally seen plenty of ups and downs driven by the expansion of pharmaceutical business, dynamical client habits and wishes, and up to date client movement toward the employment of natural materials. Pharmacognosy has played a crucial role within the discovery and development of latest medication and therapies, and has been continued to try and do thus even these days. It additionally shaped the idea of the event of the topic "Pharmacy” [71-76].
Herbal medication have gained importance in recent years because of their effectuality and cost effectiveness. The systematic study of flavorer remedies offers pharmacognosy teams a lovely new space of analysis, starting from work the biologically active principles of phytomedicines and their mode of action and potential drug interactions, to internal control, and involvement in clinical trials. fashionable assemblage still contains a minimum of twenty fifth medication derived from plants and lots of others that are artificial analogues engineered on paradigm compounds isolated from plants [77-81].
Prevalence is unceasingly increasing in each developing and developed countries as a result of their natural origin and lesser facet effects. Currently a day’s drug discovery from medicative plants involves a multiple approach of biology, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. it's evident that drug discovery from medicative plants give new and necessary leads against numerous medicine targets together with cancer, HIV or AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Many natural product medication of plant origin have either recently been introduced are presently concerned in late-phase clinical trials [82-87].
Pharmacognosy isn't an issue of the past, however its evolved and developed over the years to adapt itself with the ever-changing surroundings, and is currently appropriate meet the challenges of the current and also the way forward for drug discovery and development. Thus, the importance of Pharmacognosy in Pharmacy cannot be overemphasized.
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