Water Pollution: A Major Threat to Living Forms
R Sai Ram Seshu* and Dipti Kumari
Department of Biotechnology, Andhra University,Visakhapatnam.
- *Corresponding Author:
- R Sai Ram Seshu
Department of Biotechnology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ; email@example.com
Received date: 06/04/2015 Accepted date: 10/04/2015 Published date: 15/05/2015
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
Water is a source of life and regarded as the most essential of natural resources. Approximately 98% of this water is seawater and is unusable for drinking because of the high concentration of salt. About 2% of the planet’s water is fresh, but 1.6 % is locked up in polar ice caps and glaciers [1-4]. Another 0.36 %is found underground in aquifers and wells. Therefore, only about 0.036% of the planet’s total water supply is present in lakes and rivers [2,5-12]. But due to pollution the water gets contaminated. Water pollution can come from a number of different sources. The main source is pollutants from both organic and industrial effluents which are introduced into the environment that has increased water and land pollution problems [13-15]. We have been confronting expanding issues because of the contamination of the surface and ground waters. Due to the mixing of untreated industrial effluents in water approximately 70% of the renewable water resources are unavailable for human use [16-20]. Shameful administration of wastewater era in the urban zones finds its own particular manner of getting into the surface water. Thus, the release effluence affects the surface water bodies [21-25]
Causes of Water Pollution
The causes for the pollution of water is releasing of industrial effluents in to fresh water, Excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, mining etc [26-30] .If we take water produced in offshore oil platform. Amid the investigation of petroleum, water which is caught in underground brought to surface along with oil and gas that is referred to as produced water has constituents that make it risky to be released into nature without sufficient treatment . In China there is a large production and consumption of oil in the world. Due to lack of awareness on protection of water and environment it effects the growth of marine ecosystem, reduces the coastline area value and also destructs the self-purification ability of oceans [32-39]. Many water pollutants remains to be addressed because of quick industrialization new synthetic mixes are consistently being produced and conveyed to the business sector and sooner on the other hand later they will develop into the sea-going frameworks [41-43]. Water pollution also leads to several disorders in humans for example The presence of Aluminum in drinking water has offered ascent to dialogs on conceivable of dangers, due to its suspected association with Alzheimer's sicknesses or dialysis encephalopathy [44-49]. Pharmaceutical and personal care products are also treated as pollutants which contain bioactive materials such as therapeutic drugs, diagnostic agents, fragrances, cosmetics .
Among all water contaminations, substantial metal particles, such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, have high dangerous and nonbiodegradable properties, can result in serious wellbeing issues in creatures and individuals  Another major source of contamination is releasing of municipal waste in to the or fresh water bodies leads to the contamination of drinking water. This leads to severe water scarcity. Notwithstanding the overwhelming metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons they contain, a percentage of the urban contaminants in city effluents display neuroendocrine disrupting action, for example, 17α-,17β-ethynylestradiol (dynamic fixing in conception prevention pills), nonylphenol (a breakdown result of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants), bisphenol and the common estrogen 17β-estradiole [51,52-54]. In Iran environmental scientists found out nitrate content in drinking water. The drinking water got polluted due to the excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture.
According to U.N World Water Development report there is a 60% increase in the population in between 2008 and 2100. By 2050 most of the developed and developing countries will face severe water stress . To avoid this kind of situation there is a need of waste water treatment to overcome the scarcity of water up to some extent. Its difficult to remove micro pollutants like Cu, Pb, Hg, As, Cr and readionuclides from ground water. Some of the wate water treatment programs were carried out to decrease the pollution of water. For example In Kuwait waste water rescue program was implemented. The main aim of this plan is to use 100% of the reclaimed municipal wastewater mainly in restricted agricultural irrigation . Paso Del Norte region U.S.-Mexico border is located with the Rio Grande river is another example of using the treated waste water used to cultivate 12250 ha agricultural area of irrigation district 04 Valle de Juarez in 2012. In Cairo scientists found Trihalomethane compounds in drinking water. The most common method to disinfect tap water is chlorination. But increase in concentration from the people’s health aspect they are suspected to be carcinogenic.
Some facts regarding water quality and statistics by WHO
Ã¯ÂÂ· Every day approximately 20 million tons of industrial waste and sewage water are released in to water (Oceans, Seas, Rivers, Fresh water ponds, Canals). Use of polluted water causes 3.1% of deaths worldwide.
Ã¯ÂÂ· More than 80% of sewage in developing nations is released untreated, dirtying streams, lakes and seaside territories. 
Ã¯ÂÂ· In most of the high and low income countries food sector plays a mojor role in releasing of organic pollutants in to water
- Kumar Reddy DH, Lee SM. Water Pollution and Treatment Technologies. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2012; 2:e103.
- David Noel S, Rajan MR. Impact of Dyeing Industry Effluent on Groundwater Quality by Water Quality Index and Correlation Analysis. J Pollut Eff Cont.2014; 2:126.
Mandour RA. Improvement of Drinking Water (Surface and Ground) Quality Beneficial to Human Use. J Pollut Eff Cont. 2013; 1:101.
- N. and Dr.N. K. Ambujam. Wastewater Treatment And Management In Urban Areas - A Case Study Of Tiruchirappalli City, Tamil Nadu, India in Martin J. Bunch, V. Madha Suresh and T. Vasantha Kumaran, eds., Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health, Department of Geography, University of Madras and Faculty of Environmental Studies, York.
- Dr Mukesh Garg. Water Pollution in India: Causes and Remedies. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences. 2012; 2: 555-567.
- Igwe CO, Saadi AAL, Ngene SE. Optimal Options for Treatment of Produced Water in Offshore Petroleum Platforms. J Pollut Eff Cont. 2013; 1: 102.
- Cui Y, Li J, Zhang Y, Zhang M. Oil-polluted Sea Water Purification by Carbonized Rice Hull. J Pollut Eff Cont. 2014; 2:122.
- Abdullah AM. Aluminum Pollution Removal from Water Using a Natural Zeolite. J Pollut Eff Cont. 2014; 2:120.
- Xie H. Occurrence, Ecotoxicology, and Treatment of Anticancer Agents as Water Contaminants. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2012; S2:002.
- Wang X, Guo Y, Yang L, Han M, Zhao J, et al. Nanomaterials as Sorbents to Remove Heavy Metal Ions in Wastewater Treatment. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2012; 2:154.
- Gagné F, André C, Cejka P, Hausler R, Fournier M. Immunotoxicity of Municipal Effluents to Freshwater Mussels. J Environment Analytic Toxicol. 2011; 1:104.
- Ziarati P, Zendehdel T, Bidgoli SA. Nitrate Content in Drinking Water in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces, Iran. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2014; 4: 219.
- Bharti A, Jalota D. Community-based Water Quality Improvement in a Rehabilitated Slum Building. J Pollut Eff Cont. 2015; 3:132.
- Singhal RK. Hybrid Materials: To Revolutionize Decontamination of Groundwater from Various Micro Pollutants Including Radionuclides. J Environ Anal Chem. 2015; 2: e108.
- Al-Anzi B, Abusam A, Shahalam A. Wastewater Reuse in Kuwait and Its Impact on Amounts of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2012; S3:003.
- Flores-Márgez JP, Jaramillo-López E, Assadian NW, Di Giovanni GD, Pérez-Casio F, et al. Heavy Metals in Oat and Soil Treated with LimeStabilized Biosolids and Reclaimed Wastewater. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2013; S6: 001.
- Souiya ER, Abdullah AM, RMaatook GA, Abdelkhabeer MA. Exposure Assessment and the Risk Associated with Trihalomethane Compounds in Drinking Water, Cairo-Egypt . J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2014; 5: 243.
- Sivasankar V, Ramachandramoorthy T. Fluoride in Groundwater and Dental Fluorosis in Rameswaram Area, Tamil Nadu, Southern India.
- Singh D, Katiyar S, Verma A. Role of Copper Sulphate on Oxidative and Metabolic Enzymes of Freshwater Fish; Channa Punctatus. 2012.
- Li S, Zhang Q. Basin Ecosystem Management in the Upper Han River for the South to North Water Division Project, China. J Environment Analytic Toxicol. 2012; S3:002.
- waichi EO and James IO. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Selected Niger Delta Communities in Nigeria. J Environment Analytic Toxicol. 2012; 2:133.
- Gnana RDF. Hydrochemistry of ground water of Thirumanur area (Tamilnadu). JEnviron.Sci and Engg., 2006; 48:199-202.
- Guideline for drinking water quality recommendation. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1994; 1:1-130.
- Gupta LN, et al. Monitoring of well water quality around Raajaula village, Chitrakoot (M.P.), Indian J. Environ. Prot. 2009; 29:317 322.
- Gupta MD. Correlation coefficient of some Physico-chemical parameters of surface and ground water of Rajgangpur part II.,J.IndianAssoci.Environ.Manag. 2002; 21:295-301.
- Jameel AA and Hussain AZ. Assessment of ground water quality on bank of Uyyakondan channel of river Cauvery at Tiruchirappalli. Indian J Environ Prot 2007; 27:713-716.
- Kumar BS, et al. Evaluation of ground water inThanjavur city, Indian J Environ Prot 26:531- 536.
- Singh AJ and Kumar TTA. Water quality analysis of drinking water resource in selected villages in Distt. Tiruneveli Indian J Environ Prot 2006; 24:921-924.
- Standards methods for examination of water and wastewater. 1998. American Public Health Association, American Water Work Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, 19th, Washington, DC.
- APHA. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. American public health association. Washington 18th edition.
- Baruah AK, et al. Impact of Sugar mill and distillery effluents on water quality of river Gelabil. Assam Indian J. Environ. Hlth. 1993; 35: 288 -293.
- Chakarabarty RD, et al. A quantitative study of the plankton and the physico-chemical condition of the river Jammuna at Allahabad in 1954-1955. Indian J Fish 1959; 6: 186-203.
- Chaturvedi YN. Observention of pollution of river Yamuna in U.P. Civic Affairs. 1985; 32: 71-75.
- Chauhan A. Impact of distillery effluents on river Vainganga and Self-purification M.S. Aces. Env.Helth. NEERI. Nagpur 1989.
- Datar MO and Vashishta RP. Physico-chemical. Aspect of pollution in River Betwa. Indian J Hnviron Prot 12 1992; 8: 557-580.
39. Dutta SPS et al. Hlydrobiolgical studies on river Basanter, Samba Jammu. J Aqua Biol 2001; 16: 41-44.
- Kapoor Prakash, C. 1993. Physicochcmical and biological study of four rivers at Bareilly (U.P.) Poll. Res. 12 (4) : 267-270.
- Water quality assement of river Chambal over the slrech of National Chambal sanctuary in M.P. Indian J of Ecol 18: 1-4.
- Mishra GP et al. A coniparitivc study of physicochemical characteristics of river and lake water in central India. Hydrobiologia. 1978; 59: 275-278.
- Narayan S et al. Water quality status of river complex. Yamuna at Panchanda Dist. Etawah U.P. Poll Res. 19 2000; 3:357-364.
- Pandey BN et al. seasonal rhythm in the physico-chemical properties of Mahananda River, Kalhihar, Bihar. Env. 10 1992; 2: 354-357.
- Rajgopalan S, et al. Pollution of river Sabarnorekha at Ranchi : A sruvey. Indian J Einviron Hlth 12 1970; 3: 246-260.
- Venkateshwarlu, V, eta l. Heavy metal polluion in the rivers at A.P. India. J. Hnviron. Biol. 1994; 15: 275-282.
- Kleli L. Aspects of River Pollution. Butterworth Scientific Publication, London: 621 NEERI 1988. Manual on Water and Waste Water Analysis, NEERI publication, Nagpur 1957; P.P. 32.
- Ghose NC and Sharma CR. The effect of drain water on the physicochemical and Bacteriological characteristic of the River Ganga, at Patna. Joshi, B.D. et al. studied physico-chemical characteristic of river Bhagirathi in the upland of Garhwal, Himalaya. Himalayan J Env Zool 1988; 7: 64-75.
- Mathew Koshy et al. Water quality of river Amba at Kozencherry. Poll Res 2000; 190: 65-68.
- Jayaraju PB et al. Seasonal variations in physicochemical parameters and diversity in the flora and fauna of the river Munnerd a tributary to river Krishan, Andhra Pradesh, India J Aqua Biol 1994; 9: 19-22.
- Abraham V and Sahota SK. Physicochemical parameter examination of river Sutalj. Indian J. Environ Prot. 1993; 13 : 171-175.
- Abraham V. Environmental pollution causes high incidence of cancer in three Kerala villages on Vembanad Lake. The Week (10th April) 2005.
- APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 19th Edn, American Public Health Association, Washington DC 1995.
- CPCB. Environmental Standards. 32. General standards for discharge of environmental pollutants, Part A. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of India 1993.
- Haniffa MA and Sundaravandanam S. Effect of distillery effluent on food utilization of freshwater fish Barbus Stigma. Life Sci Adv 1983; 2:142 - 146.
- Soman K. Geology of Kerala. Geological Society of India, Bangalore, p.336. Trivedy, R.K. and Goel, P.K. 1986. Chemical and Biochemical Methods for Water Pollution Studies. Environmental Publications, Karad, India. 2002; 247.
- Verma SR, et al. Characteristics and Disposal of distillery wastes. In: Environmental Biology. (Eds. S.R. Verma, A.K.Tyagi and S.K.Bansal) The Academy of Environmental Biology, Muzaffarnagar. 1979; 281–301.