Department of Medicinal Chemistry, National Institute of Medical Science, Delhi, India
Received: 10-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. JPN-22-55934; Editor assigned: 12- Feb-2022, Pre QC No. JPN-22-55934(PQ); Reviewed: 26- Feb-2022, QC No. JPN-22-55934; Accepted: 03-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JPN-22-55934(A); Published: 10-Mar-2022, DOI:10.4172/23477857.10.1.004.
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology
A biosensor is an analytical instrument that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector to detect a chemical molecule. Tissue, microbes, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, and other biologically generated materials or biomimetic components that interact with, bind to, or recognize the analyte under study are examples of sensitive biological elements.
Biological engineering can also be used to develop biologically sensitive elements. The transducer or detector element, which converts one signal into another, operates in a physicochemical manner: optical, piezoelectric, electrochemical, and electrochemiluminescence resulting from the interaction of the analyte with the biological element, allowing for easy measurement and quantification. The biosensor reader equipment is linked to the related electronics or signal processors, which are in charge of presenting the results in a user-friendly manner.
This is often the most expensive component of a sensor device, but it is feasible to create a user-friendly display that contains the transducer and sensitive elements. A biosensor is made up of a bio-receptor, a transducer component, and an electrical system with a signal amplifier, processor, and display. In CMOS-based micro sensor systems, for example, transducers and electronics can be combined. The recognition component, also known as a bio receptor, interacts with the analyte of interest using biomolecules from organisms or receptors modelled after biological systems.
The bio transducer, which emits a quantifiable signal proportionate to the presence of the target analyte in the sample, measures this interaction. The goal of a biosensor's design is to allow for quick and easy testing at the site of concern or care where the sample was obtained. The readers are often custom-designed and manufactured to fit various working principles. The bio receptor in a biosensor is designed to interact with the analyte of interest to cause an effect that can be measured by the transducer. A key requirement of the bio receptor is high selectivity for the analyte among a matrix of other chemical or biological components.
Biosensors can be classed based on typical forms of bio receptor interactions including antibody/antigen, enzymes/ligands, nucleic acids/DNA, cellular structures/cells, or biomimetic materials. Biosensor placement is determined by their field of application, which can be divided into four categories: biotechnology, agriculture, food technology, and biomedicine.
The chemical composition of culturing broth can be analysed in-line, on-line, at-line, and off-line in biotechnology. The sample is not withdrawn from the process stream for in-line sensors, but it is diverted from the manufacturing process for on-line measurements, according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The sample can be withdrawn and evaluated in close proximity to the process stream for at-line sensors. Lactose monitoring in a dairy processing plant is an example of the latter. Off-line biosensors are compared to bio analytical procedures that are used in the lab rather than in the field. Agriculture, food technology, and healthcare are the principal applications for these procedures.
Biosensors are classified as in vitro or in vivo systems in medical applications. An in vitro biosensor measurement takes place outside of a living creature, in a test tube, a culture dish, a microtiter plate, or somewhere else. As previously stated, the sensor employs a bio receptor and a transducer. An enzyme-conduct metric biosensor for blood glucose monitoring is an example of an in vitro biosensor.
The creation of a biosensor that operates on the premise of point-of-care testing, i.e. at the place where the test is required, is a difficulty. One of these investigations is the development of wearable biosensors. Laboratories can be eliminated, which saves time and money. A POCT biosensor could be used to test for HIV in locations where it's difficult for people to get tested. A biosensor can be sent straight to the area, and a simple test can be performed.