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A Commentary on Bovine Babesiosis

Amanda Heisler*

Department of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Melbourne University, Melbourne, United States

*Corresponding Author:
Amanda Heisler
Department of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences,
Melbourne University,
Melbourne, United States
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: 01/11/2021; Accepted date: 15/11/2021; Published date: 22/11/2021

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Description

Bovine Babesiosis (bb) is a bovine tick-borne disease. Babesia bovis is transmitted when lactating adult female mites ingest the infection. They pass it through their eggs to their offspring. The larva (or species mite) passes it when feeding another animal. B bigemina is passed down from generation to generation of ticks. When adult mites eat the infection, they infect other cows at the next generation of nymphs and adults (not larvae). Morbidity and mortality vary widely and are affected by the primary treatments used in the area, previous exposure to parasite species, and vaccination status. In endemic areas, cattle become infected at a young age and develop long-term immunity. However, outbreaks can occur in these endemic areas when exposure of young animals to ticks is interrupted or immune cattle are introduced. The introduction of babesia infected ticks into previously tick-free areas may also lead to outbreaks of disease.

Symptoms

1. High fever

2. Neurological symptoms such as coordination disorder, bruxism, and mania. Some cows can be found on the ground with involuntary movements of their paws. When the neurological symptoms of babesiosis of the brain occur, the consequences are almost always fatal.

3. Dark colored urine

4. Clinical symptoms for babesia divergens are similar to B. bigemina infections. The survivors may be weak and in reduced condition, although they usually recover fully. Subacute infections, with less apparent clinical signs, are also seen

Treatment

Mild cases may recover without treatment. Sick animals can be treated with antiparasitic drugs. If the disease is diagnosed early, treatment is most likely to be successful. If the animal is weakened by anemia, it can fail. Limidecarb has been reported to protect animals from disease, but it may develop immunity. There are also concerns about milk and meat residues. Blood transfusions and other supportive care may need to be considered.

Prevention

Effective control of tick fever was achieved by a combination of measures aimed at both disease and tick carriers. In endemic areas, tick control by immersion in a tick repellent is widely used. In heavily prevalent areas, you can dive every 46 weeks, with the emergence of environmental problems with mite resistance, bovine chemical residues, and continued use of pesticides, an integrated mite control strategy has been applied. Babesiosis vaccines are readily available and highly effective. Tick vaccines are also available in some countries and can be used as part of an integrated tick control program. Babesiosis can be eradicated by eliminating host mites. In the United States, this was achieved by treating all cattle with acaricide every 2-3 weeks. In countries where eradication is not possible, mites can reduce the incidence of disease.

Treatment for control of tick

Mix castor oil or neem oil with table salt and a small amount of camphor and apply to the affected area. The whole plant extract from Ghaner should be diluted with bovine urine and applied topically. Boil 250 g of cigarettes in 2 liters of water, add 5 liters of water and spray on the bodies of 1020 animals.

Conclusion

In endemic areas, cattle become infected at a young age and develop long-term immunity. However, outbreaks can occur in these endemic areas when exposure of young animals to ticks is interrupted or immune cattle are introduced. The introduction of babesia infected ticks into previously tick-free areas may also lead to outbreaks of disease.