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Does Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Improve Teachers Performance? Evidences from Public Schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Easaw Alemayehu*

Department of Educational Planning and Management, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author:
Easaw Alemayehu
Department of Educational Planning and Management Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: 10/09/2021; Accepted date: 24/09/2021; Published date: 01/10/2021

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Abstract

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is the concept that individual teachers strive to enhance their professional competence and knowledge beyond the initial training necessary to do their job. Therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate the nexus between continuous professional development (CPD) and teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s Gulele sub city’s public schools. By using mixed research design, the descriptive survey approach was used. Purposive, availability, and simple random sample techniques were all utilized in the study. With a total of 340 participants, the sample size was 220 teachers, 30 department heads, 30 principals, 20 vice principals, 10 CPD facilitators, 10woreda education office experts, 10 cluster supervisors, and 10 sub city education office experts. Three research questions were utilized in this study. Questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis were used to obtain information. Principals, Vice principals, department heads, Continuous Professional Development facilitators, cluster supervisors, Woreda and sub city education office specialists were among those who took part in the interview. The data collected through closed-ended questionnaires was then analysed using mean scores, standard deviations, and rank. While the data collected through interviews and open-ended questions was subjectively narrated. The findings of this study revealed that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation activity.

Keywords

Continuous, Development, Performance, Professional

Introduction

Background information

The word profession is derived from the Latin word profession-Onis, which refers to the act and result of self-awareness. Because to profess implies to employ knowledge or talent, and to publicly acknowledge a viewpoint, the term profession connotes selflessness [1]. According to the authors, a profession is an employment that necessitates specific education, expertise, training, and ethics. Professionals make a livelihood doing what they do, yet their paid employment is frequently more than simply a job or vocation. A profession is simply an employment that requires extensive training as well as the study and mastery of specialized knowledge. In most cases, there is a professional association, an ethical code, and a certification or licensing system.

In general, a profession is an activity that necessitates extensive education, specialization, and planned renewal on a regular basis. A profession contributes to workplaces through offering, seeking, and sharing information, as well as self- management of behaviour, emotions, and productivity, internal sources of motivation, a service orientation, and involvement in a knowledge community outside of the office [2]. CPD for teachers in schools focuses on their professional competence at all levels of the educational system. “Continuous refers to throughout the practitioner's life; professional refers to preserving the quality and relevance of professional service; and development indicates the advancement in personal quality to the needed knowledge and skill, according to [3]. As a result, in today's quickly changing work world, keeping up with changes and advances in practice, as well as meeting professional development standards, is essential for school success. In order to adapt with acquiring new skills through CPD, the solution to this problem is to embrace the notion of professional training. As a result, school-based continuous professional growth is the process by which a teacher keeps the quality and relevance of the professional services he or she provides up to date. As a result, CPD is defined as the continuous development of knowledge required for professional and technical tasks during a practitioner's career [4].

Furthermore, because of the notion that teachers' efficacy is mainly responsible for students' learning and performance, school-based teachers' continuous professional development has been a key priority. Professional development is considered as an important tool for instructors to improve their subject knowledge and classroom methods [5,6]. Furthermore, consistent with Ethiopian policy, continual professional development is essential for teachers to learn and grow throughout their careers [7]. The overarching goal of the CPD program, as stated in the Ministry of Education's new concept of framework [8] is to improve teacher effectiveness in the classroom, which in turn helps students reach higher levels of learning. It aims to improve teachers' knowledge, abilities, and attitudes over the course of their careers, with a focus on the local environment, especially classroom practices. The importance of CPD to enhanced and appropriate pre-service and in-service training and professional assistance is also highlighted in the Federal Ministry of Education's Educational Sector Development Review (ESDP IV) [9]. To summarize, teaching as a vocation necessitates high training requirements and on-going renewal. Continuous professional development in the classroom is a long-term enhancement of a teacher's total knowledge and abilities in the teaching and learning process.

As a result, one of the probable causes might be a difficulty with efficient CPD implementation, such as a lack of support from supervisors, facilitators, and other relevant organizations. To make the program successful, it is necessary to bridge the gap, which necessitates a scientific research. Therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate the nexus between continuous professional development (CPD) and teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s Gulele sub city’s public schools.

Some theoretical and conceptual basis

Whether new initiatives are being launched or school staffs are looking to improve the efficacy of programs currently in place, continuing professional development is crucial for developing strategies and enhancing teacher skills for continual improvement. Professional development is motivated by an examination of student requirements, is focused on specific skills needed by individuals and groups of instructors, and is ongoing and important to the implementation process in the continuous improvement process [10].

Went on to say that in order to support continuous improvement, conditions influencing teacher learning are established within the school, including attention to schedules, teacher assignments, use of meetings, resource development, cultivation of shared leadership, formation of teams, and other related matters [11]. These strategies include establishing conditions that support ongoing collaborative professional learning, determining the content of professional development experiences, designing targeted professional development programs and practices, determining what resources are required and where they can be obtained, and identifying what resources are needed and where they can be obtained. incorporating professional development into a complete school improvement strategy, as well as executing and assessing the success of professional development methods. Expert instructors with a strong understanding of their particular subjects, awareness of the conceptual hurdles that students encounter in learning about the topic, and knowledge of successful techniques for working with students are encouraged to emerge through school-based professional development. Teachers' understanding of their subjects offers a cognitive roadmap for guiding their students' tasks, gauging their progress, and responding to their queries. Teachers emphasize comprehension over memorizing and following regular processes, and they involve students in activities that encourage them to reflect on their own learning and understanding [12].

Teachers are required to continually grow and enhance their skills, techniques, and knowledge in order to effectively implement new curriculum and support ongoing educational reform projects. Pre-service training and orientation for new employees, in-service training offered by programs to current employees, training seminars and resources supplied by outside organizations, mentorship programs, and discussion groups are all examples of ways to provide continuous professional development [13]. After emphasizing the importance of CPD, the Ministry of Education (MoE) chose to provide on-the-job training programs such as workshops, symposiums, and seminars as part of CPD to improve teacher quality. The Teaching and Training Policy (ETP) established high criteria for teachers and defined a new approach to education in order to increase their effectiveness. By introducing CPD, the goal of this new strategy was to promote more active learning, problem solving, and student-centered teaching approaches [14]. found that, despite the growth of education and high-class numbers, instructors continue to rely heavily on teacher-centered techniques and CPD activities remain ineffective. Teachers can enhance their teaching activities as well as their students' academic achievement by participating in ongoing professional development. Because of this vulnerable issue, the policy explicitly stated that in order to accomplish students' results, focus should be placed on up-grading and updating both pre-service and in-service instructors [15].

As a result, schools must enhance their fundamental teaching and learning functions in order to assist students in improving their results through improved education. Motivated and qualified teachers, an enhanced instructional setting, and a well- designed curriculum are all required to obtain the desired results. According to [16] there are several types of factors in the educational system, each of which contributes to growth in its own way. The instructor is the most crucial of all, as he or she need good professional growth in all areas. Pupils can receive relevant and high-quality education by involving well-qualified instructors at all levels of education [17]. Continuous professional development is critical in assisting teachers in coping with the demands of ever-changing conditions in order to improve the quality of learning and teaching [18,19]. The school management bodies have the obligation of conducting CPD inside their schools in order to enhance the quality of education and the professional competence of teachers through organizing workshops, meetings, frequent observation of instructors, and feedback.

According to the Ministry of Education's framework document 2009, there are a number of issues with CPD in schools, including time constraints, a lack of shared vision, a lack of common understanding among partners on CPD, a lack of collaboration in the monitoring and evaluation system, a lack of adequate awareness among teachers, the absence of clearly defined objectives, turnover of CPD facilitators, and a lack of qualified leaders. The Ministry of Education's paper on the General Education Quality Improvement Program (GEQIP) also reveals that the ongoing CPD curriculum is still suffering from a lack of need assessment for teacher training and a standardized training program [20].

According to [21] CPD has minimal impact on teachers' classroom practice, the use of a participatory teaching method, or increased professional knowledge and abilities. Furthermore, a study conducted by [22] in Ethiopia in three regions, namely Tigray, Afar, and Amhara Regional States, found that, despite the policy of upgrading all teachers to diploma level, there is no difference in the teaching quality of certificate and diploma holders; teachers' classroom practice remains a challenge. Teachers could not grasp why CPD is offered, lesser commitment of teachers and principals are the primary difficulties in the study region, according to another research survey performed by [23]. Furthermore, my research focuses on the nexus between continuous professional development (CPD) and teacher performance in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia's Gulele sub city’s public schools. Furthermore, based on the researcher's eighteen years of experience as a teacher and principal, many of Gulele sub city's primary school teachers and management bodies spend the majority of their time on teaching and learning activities as well as other administrative issues rather than effectively implementing CPD activities.

In all parts of life, the world is always changing. Staff development in various professions was required due to changes in a country's education system and worldwide requirements. In this regard, [24] states that, while the world is rapidly evolving today, teachers, like most other professional groups, must recognize that their initial training will not serve them for the rest of their lives; they must continually update and improve their own knowledge and techniques. As a result, instructors all around the world are putting more emphasis on Continuing Professional. Therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate the nexus between continuous professional development (CPD) and teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s Gulele sub city’s public schools.

Statement of the problem

Development because CPD is constantly seen as a means of enhancing learner performance and the creation of necessary skills, this is the case [25]. As a result, ongoing professional development is critical for high-quality education, and teacher development is a never-ending cycle of teacher learning that begins with basic teacher training and continues for the duration of a teacher's career. As a result, teaching is a respected profession that aids instructors in improving student learning [26].

The word CPD refers to all of the activities that teachers participate in throughout their careers in order to improve their job [27]. These activities are designed to result in continuing teacher learning, which is a process through which instructors progress from novice to expert [28]. Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is rapidly becoming a focus in education in most nations across the world. It is largely regarded as the most successful method for effectively preparing teachers for entry into the workforce, as well as improving their teaching and intervention methods [29,30]. As well as Schwill and Dembele attribute CPD to its inclusion in a broader policy agenda of lifelong learning, as well as the perspective of CPD as a way of enhancing learner performance and developing necessary skills. Individuals who want to enhance their professional abilities and knowledge beyond the fundamental training necessary to perform the job are said to be engaged in continuous professional development [31].

Professional development programs, according to [32] are systematic efforts to improve instructors' classroom practices, attitudes and beliefs, and students' learning outcomes [33]. Agreed, arguing that the most immediate and important result of any successful teacher CPD is a beneficial influence on altering teachers' knowledge and practice. As a consequence, the learner's performance improves.

In addition, school management bodies such as principals, vice principals, and department heads are the primary motivators in establishing a shared vision for the curriculum and delivering inspirational curriculum leadership. The success of the school and the provision of excellent education are determined by the instructional activities of the leaders. The school administration should take the lead in developing and executing developmental programs with teachers, including determining training requirements, ways to meeting those needs, and follow-up activities [34]. CPD, according to Boalm and Hargreaves, has a favourable impact on curriculum and pedagogy, as well as the efficacy of teachers and their relationships with students. As a result, CPD is critical for teachers throughout the world, as well as in Ethiopia, to become successful and competent in their job.

According to [35] the need to improve school-based CPD is now the focus of the Ethiopian education system's ongoing education system's strategy of Teachers Development Program. As a result, professional development focuses the enhancement of teacher, principal, and school supervisor profiles in conjunction with the vision, mission, goals, curriculum development, and career renewal. The Teachers Development Program guideline also aims for long-term standards of professional progress for teachers by improving teacher quality, ensuring teacher motivation, supporting action research and joint studies, and so on.

CPD is designed for all school teachers, leaders, and supervisors in all areas of Ethiopia, according to the ministry of education's national plan [36] so that they may participate in high-quality and effective CPD that improves classroom practices and ensures enhanced learning. It enables all teachers to enhance their knowledge, skills, and attitudes in order to become more successful classroom practitioners and positively contribute to community development. As a result, the education sector development program (ESDP) is launched as a twenty-year education sector plan with quality improvement at all levels of the educational system, within the framework of the education and training policy. Continuous professional development is used to keep instructors up to speed on new perspectives, methods, and policy orientations. CPD also improves learning quality by improving instructors' skills and expertise in teaching-learning activities.

The most essential factor in ensuring the quality of education and improving student outcomes is teacher professional development. Consequently, CPD is one of the components of teachers' professional development, and it helps to enhance both instructors' classroom activities and students' academic success. As a result, teachers at Gulele sub city’s public schools attempted to implement CPD. Despite the efforts, the true implementation of the CPD program is still a long way off, and it (CPD) does not properly created the expected link with teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation activities in any practical way.

Therefore, the focus of this research will be on assessing CPD practices and obstacles during the implementation phase. As far as the researcher knows, no comprehensive study has been published on the nexus between continuous professional development (CPD) and teacher performance in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia's Gulele sub city’s public schools. As a result, the condition of CPD in Gulele Sub city Primary School inspired me to do scientific study in this field. The inquiry would focus on the implementation of CPD in schools in connection with teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation activities in practical way. In view of the aforementioned important and sensitive concerns, the researcher set out to fill the gap and undertake a thorough investigation of the topic with a focus on primary schools teachers. The following fundamental research questions were created to assess the link of CPD with teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, and mentoring and peer observation and to solve the existing problems.

  1. Does CPD have significant impact on the teachers’ teaching competence in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools?
  2. Does CPD have significant impact on the teachers’ action research preparation in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools?
  3. Does CPD have meaningful impact on the on the teachers’ mentoring and peer observation activities in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools?

Objectives of the study

General objective:

The main objective of this study was to assess the link of CPD with teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, and mentoring and peer observation in Addis Ababa Gulele sub city’s public schools.

Specific Objectives:

  • To examine the significant impact of CPD on the teachers’ teaching competence in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.
  • To explore the significant impact of CPD on the teachers’ action research preparation in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.
  • To investigate the meaningful impact of CPD on the teachers’ mentoring and peer observation activities in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

Significance of the study

To increase the quality of education, continuous professional development (CPD) is being implemented. As a result, teachers in the Addis Ababa Gulele sub city's public schools need accurate knowledge on the link between CPD and teaching competency, action research preparation, mentorship, and peer observation. Furthermore, the goal of any research is to effect change and provide answers to issues that already exist. On top of this, the study would have the following advantages:

  • It may offer educational authorities at the Ministry of Education, the Addis Ababa Education Office, and the Gulele Sub City Education Office with information about current CPD practice and activities, allowing them to better fulfil their obligations.
  • It could be useful for administrators, supervisors, and teachers to understand the relationship between CPD and teaching competency, action research preparation, mentorship, and peer observation.
  • It may offer policymakers with information that may aid in the creation of educational initiatives.
  • The study will add to the current literature on educator CPD experiences.
  • It is also intended that the findings of the study would contribute to the development of quality education by encouraging interested parties to participate in school improvement programs that eventually result in student accomplishment.

Scope of the study

The study was geographically confined to 10 elementary schools in Addis Ababa's Gulele sub-city to make it more doable. The Gulele sub city was chosen because the researcher spent 10 years as an academic director in the sub city and eight years in other sub cities. 18 years of service in total. This made it easier for the researcher to get relevant data for the study's assessment of school-based CPD. The research was also confined to evaluating the relationship between CPD and teachers' teaching competency, action research preparation, mentorship, and peer observation at public schools in Addis Ababa's Gulele sub-city.

Review of Related Literature

The Concept of the Continuous Professional Development

Continuous professional development is based on the idea that reflection on one's own practices and cooperation are necessary for improving competence and bringing quality to education. The learning of students is the responsibility of teachers and schools. Outsiders do not convey knowledge; rather, it develops via collaborative conversations, application, and reflection in light of local circumstances. As a result, teachers' dedication to working together, solving local problems, increasing teacher competency, and improving students' academic achievement is critical. CPD is defined in a variety of ways by various academics. They do, however, communicate comparable thoughts. The phrase "continuing professional development" refers to "all of the activities that teachers engage in throughout their careers in order to improve their job" [37].

Continuous professional development refers to any professional development activities that a person engages in with the goal of improving their knowledge and skills so that they can consider their attitudes and approaches to children's education in order to improve their teaching and learning quality [38-40]. Go on to say that CPD is a continuous process that begins with initial teacher training and induction and continues with opportunities for development and training throughout a teacher's career. CDP is described in the Ministry of Education's framework paper 2009 as everything that makes me a better teacher, with the goal of improving teacher performance. CPD, according to [41] embraces the concept of individuals striving for continual development in their professional abilities and knowledge beyond the initial training necessary to perform the job. According to [42] Continuing Professional Development can be defined as in service, continuing education, on-the- job training, workshops, post qualification courses, and other forms of in service. We may also describe CPD as a pillar of teachers teaching-learning activities that contribute to society's social and economic growth. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is widely recognized as being critical in the life of schools, contributing to staff professional and personal development as well as teaching and learning enhancement. CPD is described as "all natural learning experiences and those aware and planned actions that are meant to be of direct or indirect value to the person, group, or school, and which contribute to the quality of education in the classroom through these" [43,44] first recognized two components of teacher professional development: staff development and additional professional study. Staff development was seen as being anchored in the institution's requirements. Orienting further professional education to the requirements of individual instructors was referred to as "further professional study." As a result, CPD can help the organization's activities as well as the teachers' professional qualifications.

The benefits of CPD

Instructors should participate in ongoing professional development in order to become better and more successful teachers who can adapt to various school or classroom settings. At the same time, the adjustment should result in better learning results for the students. The most immediate and major result of any good CPD, according to [45] is a positive influence on improving instructors' knowledge and practice, which should lead to better learner performance. found that most instructors participate in CPD activities because they desire to become better teachers in a research study on teacher professional development. Professional development programs are seen by these instructors as one of the most promising and accessible paths to career advancement. It's also worth noting that becoming a better teacher implies improving student learning outcomes for the vast majority of teachers.

Teachers are drawn to professional development because they feel it will increase their knowledge and abilities, contribute to their growth, and improve their effectiveness with students, according to scholars such as [46,47]. Any development initiative that does not satisfy these demands is consequently unlikely to succeed has identified the following objectives for teacher responsibility CPD: to improve the job performance skills of the entire staff and individuals; to develop the professional knowledge and understanding of an individual teacher; to extend the personal or general education of an individual; to make staff feel respected, to promote job satisfaction among staff; to prepare teachers for the future. In addition, claims that in-service education improves the cultural and professional standards of the whole teaching staff. As a result, in-service education is an indication of an education system's health since it contributes to a better teaching force and improved learner outcomes, as previously stated. Teachers are ultimately responsible for the changes in classroom practices needed by educational reforms [48]. Continuous professional development is critical in assisting instructors in meeting the present needs of ongoing and dynamic changes in order to improve the quality of learning and teaching [49].

As a result, the overall goal of the CPD program is to raise and improve teachers' subject matter knowledge based on curriculum content and teaching approaches that require teachers to involve students in the development of higher order thinking skills by developing more positive attitudes toward their work at the school level, as well as to strengthen professional identity. It also encourages instructors to value their professional job by giving fresh opportunities for growth, discovery, learning, and development. Furthermore, the importance of CPD to better pre-service and in-service training and professional assistance is highlighted in the federal ministry of education's educational sector review (ESDP IV) [50]. Finally, the goal of school-based CPD is to certify instructors' abilities in order to enhance kids' learning environments.

The CPD cycle

The CPD Cycle is a well-thought-out response to stated development requirements. The CPD cycle is identical at each level - person, group, institution, woreda, zone, and region, national. Analysis of the current situation, planning, acting, and evaluation is the key tasks of CPD cycles. The CPD analysis is then linked to the process of selecting an individual's, a group's, or an institution's learning requirements. This exercise involves self-evaluation, peer review, and the determination of CPD priorities for the school. Meetings about the curriculum, demonstration classes, and so on together, you should plan lessons. Peer observation, instructional observation, and feedback Observing pupils in class, conversing with them before and after the CPD activity, students' work is evaluated. Students' work is graded. Additionally, providing comments and growth recommendations. Following in the footsteps of a teacher Participatory action research, Professional research and reading Visiting schools and instructors to see best practices. Within a school, sharing and showing excellent practices updating a professional portfolio, teaching in a group, etc. Workshops, on- the-road experts, mentoring a young person are one of the key tasks of the CPD analysis, according to the Ministry of Education [51].

Planning is a component of the CPD cycle, which is produced yearly by each educational institution and begins with the prioritization of the issue discovered during the analysis phase. Individually or institutionally, the CPD plan may be created with information about events and times inside the CPD module [52]. Doing is focused with practical approaches for realizing CPD requirements in order to improve and update teacher performance. Curriculum reform planning, peer observation, action research, connecting with students, exchanging professional experiences, workshops, mentorship, discussion, and gatherings are examples of such activities. Reviewing and judging the efficacy of the CPD action plans' anticipated goals is called evaluation [53]. The key acts and variables of the CPD cycle are, in general, analysis of the current situation, planning, doing, and assessment.

The Major activities in CPD

Induction

Induction is a deliberate organizational effort to help employees adjust to new tasks [54]. It may be claimed that induction is a planned exercise to assist newcomers and/or new employees in doing their tasks effectively. This is because, as nearly any serving teacher can attest, the first year of teaching has always been challenging. Newly recruited instructors must comprehend how the system works and where they fit into it. Induction is a type of well-organized professional support offered to new instructors and employees in order for them to contribute to the successful completion of their tasks. Newly hired instructors must learn how the educational system works and how to adapt to it. New teachers get induction as a kind of transitional CPD in order to adapt or convert to the lifetime process [55].

Newly recruited teachers, in particular, struggle to grasp their obligations owing to a lack of information about the school's vision and goals. Job descriptions and understanding of the school's formal structure are important for new employees. Teachers may become frustrated and may abandon their job if they do not receive adequate knowledge about their duties, responsibilities, and other relevant concerns, according to David.

According to [56] new employees are supported via induction to acclimatize to their work environment as efficiently as feasible with the least amount of difficulty and as fast as possible. As a result, induction is the process of familiarizing all staff members who are starting a new job at a new school or taking on a new role within the same school. A well-designed induction program, according to [57], is an effective staff development model. The school's induction policy should include the institutionalized induction program. Schools with an induction policy can help ensure that everyone is aware of processes, rights, and In addition, a school induction policy should ensure that a planned induction procedure is implemented and that all induction participants understand their roles and duties.

According to academics like Widen and Andrews, a strong induction program is defined by experienced and starting instructors engaging in the planning, problem solving, decision-making, and execution of induction activities. The induction exercises should be included into the school's CPD strategy. As a result, the induction would serve the aim of laying a solid basis for individual instructors' future professional and career growth [58].

Peer coaching

Coaching is a procedure in which a person with knowledge in a subject guides colleague via organized talks and exercises on how to solve issues and execute duties more effectively than they would without it [59]. Coaching is mostly used to improve practical abilities. It occurs when employees seek guidance, explanations, or demonstrations at work. Research, involvement in study groups, problem-solving teams, observation of colleagues' performance, writing journals, and participation in improvement initiatives are all major coaching opportunities.

When two or more peers, generally from the same grade, subject, or learning area, visit each other while teaching and discuss ways to aid learners, this is known as peer coaching, Furthermore, cite Murphy who claim that peer coaching is particularly beneficial when teachers have received similar training and have the opportunity to compare how they apply their newly acquired abilities. When Hpkins, Ainscow, and West (1994) argue that the major aim of peer coaching is to give support rather than assessment, they provide an essential pointer: peers are more suited partners in this professional growth system than administrators. Coaching, in general, necessitates human interpersonal interactions, a collegial environment, and cooperation. Teachers who fulfill the position of coach must be skilled, informed, and devoted. It is critical to choose the right coaches. The education system will gain greatly if this method is successfully applied in schools.

Monitoring

Mentoring, as described by Bladford is "process help provided by experienced employees to other practitioners who need to gain professional expertise." An experienced practitioner is assigned as a mentor to help a new or inexperienced instructor adjust to the demands of a demanding profession. When a new teacher is paired with an experienced one, it is referred to as mentoring. During mentoring, the more experienced teacher passes on his or her knowledge and abilities to the less experienced instructor. An experienced teacher, who ensures that he or she obtains the required knowledge and abilities, mentors the newly appointed teacher.

Beginner teachers who want to enhance their teaching are paired with an experienced teacher mentor who teaches the same subject area, according to Mundry. Mentoring improves mentors' self-esteem by allowing them to perceive themselves as competent, helpful, and open to personal interaction Murrphy. A mentor gives assistance, problem solving, and advice to a newcomer, as well as a network of professionals who share resources, knowledge, methods, and materials. Mentors must also develop a positive supervisory connection and use effective counselling techniques [60].

Furthermore, induction tutors are required to respect, support, motivate, and comprehend newly certified teachers in their day-to-day work with them so that they assume growing responsibility for their own growth. In mentoring, school leaders and other concerned officials must devise suitable mentoring programs and assist their execution in order to obtain feedback and address any issues that may arise as a result of the process.

Action research

Action research is a practical approach of professional study in any social situation. One of the most essential components of teachers' continuous professional development is action research. It is a necessary practice in the development of educational vocations in the educational system. Action research empowers teachers through improving individual practices, student learning outcomes, commitment to work, a collaborative work environment, and effective school leadership.

Teachers' professionalization is aided by action research, which assists them in developing and confirming their expertise. Action research frequently begins as school-based studies as part of a pre-service teacher education program and continues as part of a school-based teacher professional development program throughout a teacher's practice. According to Johson action research enhances teaching and learning practices toward excellent education by altering instructors' attitudes. It requests that the current condition be improved, as well as the possibility of influencing school reform. Teachers make computations as a result of action research. It is a concerted effort by teachers to complete specific tasks, students to collaborate with their peers, and stakeholders to find answers to problems that arise in schools.

Action research, according to MoE is defined as a small-scale engagement in a real-world function and a detailed assessment of the impacts of such involvement. This implies that it is the method through which the researcher participates in the real-world function. According to McBride action research is beneficial to teachers' professional growth for three reasons: It's inquiry-based, so instructors may look at their own words. Its goal is to improve school-based teaching and learning. It also leads to deliberate and well-thought-out action to improve teaching and learning environments.

Classroom practices of CPD

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) exercises play an important role in the classroom implementation of the actual teaching and learning process. It also encourages the use of student-cantered techniques in the classroom to improve learning outcomes. Continuous professional development also enhances teaching abilities such as self-evaluation, action research, lesson preparation, and successful classroom management by using a range of teaching approaches, fostering teacher participation in teamwork, and recognizing gender problems.

CPD has the potential to influence the adoption of teaching learning practices in the classroom, according to Gallimore, James, and James. Learning together, using a portfolio, supporting active learning techniques, and employing effective teaching skills are all frequent activities in the classroom. CPD is an essential approach to enhance teaching and learning abilities in the classroom by offering opportunities for colleagues to learn from one another and exchange excellent practices and experiences. Principals and supervisors encourage principals and supervisors to share their experiences through peer observation, feedback, and in school visits. In general, the goal of school-based CPD is to improve the quality of teaching and learning techniques in the classroom, such as encouraging active learning, practicing effective class management, carrying out well-planned procedural activities, and fostering smooth communication between students and teachers.

Research Design and Methodology

Design of the study

In this study, a descriptive survey is employed. By documenting people's actions, a descriptive survey research aims to capture people's ideas, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs about a continuous professional development (CPD) issue. The most frequent way for gathering such data or information from people was to conduct a survey. It would also aim to analyse the relationship between continuous professional development (CPD) and teachers' teaching competency, action research preparation, mentorship, and peer observation, as well as to fix any difficulties that could arise. To summarize the descriptions, the number of respondents who reported each response, as well as their mean, standard deviation, and rank, was used. As a result, it clarified the truth and what is actually going on in contemporary practices, challenges, and concerns in the field of study. A mixed approach plan was chosen because it allows us to gain a deeper grasp of a study topic or issue than if we used only one research method. It includes gathering, evaluating, and combining quantitative and qualitative data in a single research.

This study looked at the elements of continuous professional development (CPD: teachers' teaching competency, action research preparation, mentorship, and peer observation.

Data source

Primary and secondary data were used to achieve the study's goal. Sample answers from public schools in Addis Ababa's Gulele sub-city included 220 teachers, 30 department heads, 30 principals, 20 vice principals, 10 CPD facilitators, 10woreda education office experts, 10 cluster supervisors, and 10 sub-city education office experts. A total of 340 respondents. Important informants from these public school leadership positions also provided interviews as a major data source.

Sampling design

Study population:

The sample would be selected from the research population, which is made up of a variety of factors. As a result, 220 teachers, 30 department heads, 30 principals, 20 vice principals,, 10 CPD facilitators, 10 woreda education office experts, 10 cluster supervisors, and 10 sub-city education office experts have been selected. A total of 340 respondents were chosen as sample responders from public schools in Addis Ababa's Gulele sub-city.

Sample size:

A total of 340 (three hundred forty) respondents were chosen from the general target group to participate in this study using a simple random sample and purposive sampling.

Sampling techniques:

Simple random sampling and purposive sampling procedures were used to choose sample responders from the total population. Simple random sampling procedures were employed to eliminate bias and generalize data collected from sample respondents. Department heads, principals, vice principals, CPD facilitators, Woreda education office experts, cluster supervisors, and sub-city education office experts from the education office and public primary schools were identified as key informants, and purposive sampling was employed as a technique. The researcher purpusly include such leadership bodies in order to obtain valuable information regarding the relationship between Continuous Professional Development (CPD) with teachers’ teaching competency, action research preparation, mentorship, and peer observation used this technique.

Method of data collection

The researcher employed both primary and secondary data to conduct this study. This study employed the descriptive survey approach, including a questionnaire, an interview, and document analysis among the data collection procedures utilized to get primary data from sample respondents.

Questionnaire

This approach was utilized to examine the link between Continuous Professional Development (CPD) and teachers' teaching competency, action research preparation, mentoring, and peer observation utilizing a five point likert-scale survey constructed using multiple literature reviews. There are closed and open-ended versions of the questionnaire. This makes it simple to collect a big amount of data from a large number of responders in a short amount of time and at a low cost. Furthermore, all of the participants were literate because they all work in educational institutions. As a result, people will be able to read and react to the questionnaire more freely, expressing their thoughts on the subject, and respondents will be able to provide information without fear of reprisal.

Interview

In a semi-structured interview, key informants such as department heads, principals, vice principals, CPD facilitators, Woreda education office experts, cluster supervisors, and sub-city education office experts were interviewed to obtain specific information about the general current context in order to examine the link between Continuous Professional Development (CPD) and teachers' teaching competency, a study was conducted.

Method of data analysis

To address the major research questions and meet the study's objectives, both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques were used. As a result, the obtained data were recorded, edited, organized, analysed, presented, and interpreted in connection to research objectives for the study's execution and completion. For data obtained through surveys, descriptive statistical techniques such as tables, figures, means, standard deviations, and rank order were employed. The average mean scores for low, moderate, high, and very high, respectively, were 1.00-2.49, 2.50-3.49, 3.50- 4.49, and 4.50-5.00. Data gathered through interviews and document analysis was analysed using descriptive statistical approaches such as the description of finding.

Pilot test

A pre-test of 85 (25%) of the total respondents (340) was done at 5 separate government schools in Arada sub city before the final distribution of the questionnaire because the researcher created and employed a self-administered five-point Likert scale questioner. The pilot test was critical in evaluating the instruments' validity and reliability, with the objective of identifying whether the item included in the instrument can aid the researcher in obtaining the essential data. In addition, the goal of pilot testing was to make any necessary changes in order to solve any unclear or baffling issues, and the researcher collaborated closely with him on this. As a result, a final analysis was done on 30 items for sample survey respondents using the SPSS computer software. As a consequence, the questionnaire was evaluated, and the reliability test result was calculated statistically with SPSS version 26 software.

Ethical consideration

The researcher's agreement with his or her study participants is referred to as research ethics. Every research project has ethical implications, and all researchers must be aware of and respond to ethical concerns that arise as a result of their work. As a result, participants were invited to complete the survey at their leisure. Responding to interviews and filling out questionnaires took a lot of time and effort. As a consequence, the researcher educated respondents about the study's goals and importance before allowing them to exercise their right to voluntary participation. They were given assurances that the information they provided would be kept private. This was accomplished by eliminating data that required respondents' names to be revealed. In addition, an introductory note was included on the first page of the questionnaire, seeking the respondents' cooperation in providing the required information for the study.

Presentations and analysis of results

A research was done with the ultimate objective of evaluating the relationship between Continuous Professional Development (CPD) and instructors' teaching ability. A self-prepared survey was used to illustrate this, with the findings displayed in table 1 below Table 1.

Table 1. CPD`S Impact on The Teachers’ Teaching Competence.

CPD`S Impact on The Teachers’ Teaching Competence Mean SD Rank
1. Teachers' classroom activities are improved through continuing professional development. 3.49 1.4 8
2. CPD assists teachers in expanding their expertise. 3.56 1.4 7
3. CPD aids in the improvement of learning and teaching standards. 4.4 1.8 1
4. CPD aids in the implementation of continuous assessment techniques. 4.1 1.6 4
5. CPD enables colleagues to share their experiences with their teachers. 4.2 1.7 3
6. Professional teaching licenses are renewed with the aid of CPD. 3.9 1.6 5
7. CPD aids in the creation of instructional materials. 3.2 1.3 10
8. CPD aids in the identification of special needs students and the provision of assistance to them. 3.4 1.4 9
9. CPD assists in the implementation of effective classroom management methods. 3.7 1.5 6
10. CPD aids in the implementation of effective time management in the classroom. 4.3 1.7 2

The majority of respondents in Table 1 item 1 had a moderate response for teachers' classroom activities improvement through continuing professional development, with a mean score of (M=3.49, SD=1.4) and a rank of 8, indicating that the majority of respondents had a moderate response for teachers' classroom activities improvement through continuing professional development. In the qualitative portion of this poll, one respondent said the following, which was similar to the quantitative result: It is obvious that our schoolteachers have made significant progress in their instructional activities. Although the outcome cannot be attributed entirely to the continuous professional development program, the influence of CPD is significant.

In addition, the other interviewee stated:

I had little interest in professional development programs until I noticed a significant difference in our teachers. Even one day, I recall thinking to myself that it is a waste of time and work because the teachers are all university graduates. But, in today's world, I am certain that CPD is critical for the advancement of all classroom-teaching activities. With a mean, standard deviation and a rank score of (M=3.56, SD=1.4, R= 7) the majority of respondents in Table 1 question 2 had a moderate reaction whether CPD aids teachers in extending their competence or not. Two respondents said the following in the qualitative section of the survey, which was identical to the enumerative value:

Teachers have increased their subject matter expertise levels as a result of constant feedback and CPD. Since one supervising higher-level teacher is designated specifically for new entering teachers, constructive criticism, in my opinion, has aided in the development of topic specialists at that level.

The second one similarly said:

Because experience counts the most, the most experienced continuous professional development catch did everything they could to improve the quality of their co-workers. Government school students will enhance their performance over time if we continue to use it. The majority of respondents in Table 1 question 3 had a high response to CPD aids in improving learning and teaching standards, with a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=4.4, SD=1.7, R= 1). In the qualitative portion of the poll, two respondents said the following, which matched the enumerative value: It is clear that teachers have made significant progress in their teaching and learning duties. If no follow-up and feedback were provided, I believe that no significant change in the subject matter expert would be evident even after twenty years of employment. As you can see, continuing professional development must be ingrained in the ethos of this school.

The second, in a similar vein, stated:

Professional development, particularly in the field of teaching and learning, has undeniable value. I've observed a lot of teachers in this school who are trying to improve their teaching skills. I recall one new teacher, who was too nervous to state her aim for twenty minutes, but luckily, after two years, I had the opportunity to see her again, and to my amazement, she was an excellent captain of her classroom With a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=4.1, SD=1.6, R= 4), the majority of respondents in Table 1 question 4 had a positive reaction to CPD assistance in the application of continuous assessment procedures. One respondent said the following in the qualitative section of the survey, which matched the enumerative value:

Although, when compared to private schools, government public schools employ continuous evaluation strategies less frequently. The use of continual evaluation and submitting in a particular school is absolutely recommended by modern pedagogy principles. As a result of the adoption of CPD at this school, teachers are using continuous assessment approaches in their teaching profession. As a result, the students’ grades are progressively improving. (Interviewee, # 8, February 2021) Respondents were asked to assess whether CPD allows colleagues to share their experiences with their fellow teachers in answer to item 5 in Table 1. As a consequence, the average score, standard deviation, and rank of the respondents were (M= 4.2), (SD=1.68), and (R= 3) correspondingly. Among all items, this item has the third highest rank. As a result, CPD allows colleagues to highly share their experiences with their professors. One responder said the following in the qualitative section of the survey, which matched the enumerative value:

Because the taste of CPD implementation allows teachers to see how to conduct their teaching work, teachers in this school have had the opportunity to share with their co-workers. One teacher's experience will be shared with other teachers, allowing them to complement what they were missing while also giving what they had. As a result, the concepts of give and take are relevant in our school.

The respondents' average score for item 6 in table 1 was (M=3.9). Professional teaching licenses are renewed with the aid of CPD was modest, according to the respondents' mean ratings and standard deviation value of (SD= 1.56). The following comment was made by one of the respondents, and it is pretty telling: Obtaining a professional license has been a must-have problem in recent years, notably last year and this year. Although not explicitly stated, some teachers have received their professional license as a result of the CPD process, which was one of the criteria for licensure.

For item 7 of table 1, the respondents' average score and standard deviation were (M=3.2) and (SD=1.28), respectively. The mean ratings of the respondents clearly demonstrate that CPD does not help in the design of instructional materials. Out of the 10 options, this item has the tenth lowest importance. Additionally, the mean score of the respondents was (M=3.4), as shown in Table 1 item 8. This implies that CPD aids in the identification of special needs students and the provision of assistance to them was a moderate CPD`S impact on the teachers’ teaching competence, since it was ranked moderately by the respondents having a standard deviation value of (SD=1.6). One responder said the following in the qualitative section of the survey, which matched the enumerative value:

Despite the fact that special need education is a hot topic in today's teaching philosophy, I don't see a direct link between it and the notion of a Continuous Professional Development program. Inspectors, on the other hand, will explain how to handle classroom management fully while providing comments. Some criteria exist in relation to school preparation for special needs students. However, to be honest, the remarks made in relation to special needs children are sent to the school's administration rather than being viewed by a single teacher. As a result, because the situation of special needs students is so important, it must be addressed in CPD much more.

The majority of respondents in Table 1 question 9 had a moderate reaction to CPD assistance in the application of effective classroom management strategies, with a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=3.7, SD=1.48, R= 6). In the qualitative portion of the poll, one respondent said the following, which matched the enumerative value. CPD has a good relationship to teachers having successful classroom management methods, and I am a witness to this. Furthermore, because CPD provides quick feedback after evaluation, the observer will be able to discern both the strengths and flaws of a particular topic teacher's classroom management style. Since the teacher has acquired development areas in classroom management, the teacher's methods in conducting his class will undoubtedly improve on the following observation.

The average score and standard deviation for item 10 in table 1 were (M=4.3) and (SD=1.72), respectively. CPD definitely assists in the implementation of good time management in the classroom, as evidenced by the respondents' mean evaluations. This item is the second most important of the ten possibilities. On the aforementioned issue, interviewees observed the same thing as they did with the quantitative finding. For example, one of the interviewers said: Because the allotted (45) forty-five minutes must be used in a systematic manner, time management is a critical component of CPD activities. In this regard, I've observed a significant percentage of teachers putting their allotted time to better use by executing the planned educational activity. As a result, because time management is a product of CPD, I can claim that CPD aids in the implementation of effective time management in the classroom (Table 2).

Table 2.  CPD`S Impact on the Teachers’ Research Preparation.

CPD`S Impact on Teachers’ Research Preparation Mean SD Rank
1. CPD makes it easier to do action research. 3.1 1.2 6
2. In my school, action research is a component of the CPD program. 3.32 1.3 3
3. Teachers at our school began conducting action research after receiving CPD. 3.03 1.2 7
4. Teachers were encouraged to do action research by the school administrators and vice principals. 3.42 1.4 1
5. Teachers' research quality increased as a result of the CPD program. 3.11 1.2 5
6. Teachers were able to enhance and alter their teaching practices because to action research. 3.23 1.3 4
7. Schools and teachers have typically demonstrated that they are competent researchers following CPD. 2.7 1.1 10
8. Teachers were facilitated and encouraged to conduct their own small-scale action research projects in their classrooms by the Education Office. 2.9 1.2 8
9. When it comes to assisting teachers' CPD, action research has proven to be effective. 2.82 1.1 9
10. Action research provides an effective technique as well as instruments to address the complexity of a whole-school approach, thanks to CPD. 3.33 1.3 2

The average score and the standard deviation of the responders for item 1 in Table 2 was (M=3.1) and (SD= 1.24) respectively. As a consequence of this finding, it is feasible to conclude that CPD’s importance for making action research has got medium mean value. This result is telling us though CPD has got to do something with action research its nexus is not satisfactory. This item also has got a rank value of (R= 6) which is still below half priority. The majority of respondents in Table 2 question 2 had a moderate reaction to “In my school, action research is a component of the CPD program” with a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=3.32, SD=1.33, R= 3). In the qualitative portion of the poll, one respondent said the following, which matched the enumerative value.

Although action research preparation is an integral element of the CPD program, supervising teachers and other interested parties are not enthusiastic about putting it into reality. I am aware that performing an action research of this level requires a significant amount of time and effort on my part. However, in my opinion, if adequate attention was given to action research, a far greater improvement might be achieved. For item 3 of table 2, the respondents' average score, standard deviation and rank were (M=3.03), (SD=1.21), and (R= 7) respectively. The mean ratings of the respondents clearly demonstrate that Teachers at this school began conducting action research after receiving CPD moderately. Out of the 10 options, this item has the seventh lowest importance. Interviewees saw the same thing with the aforementioned issue as they did with the quantitative finding. One of the interviewees, for example, said: I am convinced that teachers should conduct at least a little action research project in their working language. In this area, I've seen a few action research projects done with mediocre results. We are at the beginning of the process of tying CPD to the implementation of teacher action research, and much more practice is anticipated. For item 4 in Table 2, the average score, standard deviation, and rank of the respondents were (M=3.42), (SD= 1.37), and (R= 1), respectively. As a result of this data, it is possible to infer that school administrators and vice principals encouraged teachers to do action research, with a medium mean value. This conclusion indicates that, while CPD must engage in action research, its connection with school administrators and vice principals is moderate. However, in terms of ranking, this item has a rank value of (R= 1), which is still greater than the previous item. One of the responders offered the following remark, which is quite telling:

Since principals, vice principals, and supervisors are responsible for informing their colleagues about the need of doing action research in their areas of expertise, they are not actively promoting teachers to become researchers. Prior to informing and expecting teachers to conduct action research, principals, vice principals, and education office cluster supervisors were supposed to serve as role models by conducting small research on their own. Principals, vice principals, and education office cluster supervisors failed to do research, to the best of my knowledge. How can they encourage other teacher to take risks when conducting research? The respondents' average score was (M=3.11), as shown in Table 2 item 5. This means that the teachers' research quality improved as a result of the CPD program, which was rated moderately by the respondents (SD=1.24). Furthermore, as indicated in Table 2 item 6, the mean score of the respondents was (M=3.23). This means that the teachers' capacity to improve and change their teaching practices as a result of action research was modest, as measured by the respondents' standard deviation value of (SD=1.29). The rank of this item is (R =4). The following is an example of a participant's experience:

Because of action research, teachers were able to improve and modify their teaching techniques as a result of CPD, but not to the desired degree. Because teachers used both quantitative and qualitative data collecting methods, they were able to get information in the manner in which teaching practice was anticipated to be carried out, which could be used to enhance teaching practice in a specific classroom. (February 2021) For item 7 in Table 2, the responders' average score and standard deviation were (M=2.7) and (SD=1.08), respectively. As a result of this conclusion, it is reasonable to assume that schools and teachers have frequently proven that they are not qualified researchers as a result of CPD lower mean value. This finding indicates that, while CPD in the literature has to do with action research, it has a nexus in public elementary schools, where teachers have generally proven that they are not good researchers. This object has a rank value of (R= 10) as well, which is the lowest of all the ranks. A respondent made the following comment, and it is rather telling:

My friend, you should keep in mind that the practice of CPD began in the near future with a small group of highly skilled action research specialists. Even supervisors and principals may not do action research of the required level. How can we expect those teachers to do an earth shaking action research? In the current state of affairs, it is impossible to do so. Brother research takes time, requires expertise, and attracts notice. Do today's teachers possess all of these qualities? No, I don't believe so. (February 2021).

As indicated in Table 2 item 8, the respondents' mean score was (M=2.9). This means that, because the mean value is medium, the Education Office moderately enabled and encouraged teachers to perform small-scale action research projects in their classrooms. The respondents scored it modestly, with a standard deviation value of (SD=1.16). This item has a rank value of (R= 8) as well, which is the eighth lowest of the provided rankings. The average score, standard deviation, and rank of the respondents for item 9 in Table 2 were (M=2.82), (SD= 1.13), and (R= 9), respectively. As a result of this information, it is feasible to conclude that action research has shown to be fairly successful in helping teachers' CPD. The influence of CPD on teachers' research preparation is moderate, according to this finding. In terms of ranking, this item has a lower rank value of (R= 9), which is still the lowest among the items in the order of rank. The following comment was made by one of the respondents, and it is pretty telling:

Principals, vice principals, department heads, and supervisors at our school, in my opinion, can give as much assistance as they can. However, in order to make a real difference, a significant amount of reform is required, beginning with college education. How many of us found out about action research and articles by doing so? The context, you see, is crucial. I applaud the initial effort on a specific school campus, but much more in-depth study is required if we are serious about improving the quality of action research in schools.

With a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=3.33, SD=1.33, R= 2), the majority of respondents in Table 2 question 10 had a moderate reaction to: “action research provides an effective strategy as well as tools to handle the complexity of a whole-school approach, due to CPD.” One respondent said the following in the qualitative section of the survey, which matched the enumerative value. Despite the fact that we do not have many action researches that were prepared using the comprehensive concept of action research preparation, the tested action researches attempted to address and mitigate the existing problem to some extent, which is a positive thing. In this regard, all concerned professionals are expected to give it their all-in order to put what is written on paper into practice, and once we have done so, we can confidently state that action research provides an effective technique as well as instruments to address the complexity of a whole-school approach, thanks to CPD (Table 3).

Table 3. CPD`S Impact on the Teachers’ Mentoring and Peer Observation Activities.

CPD`S Impact on Mentoring and Peer Observation Mean SD Rank
1. My understanding of follow-up increased as a result of CPD workshops, which made it easier for me to engage in my mentoring process. 3.22 1.3 7
2. CPD assisted teachers in supporting the practice of collaborative peer observations in the classroom. 3.43 1.4 2
3. Teachers increased their performance with the help of CPD and mentorship. 3.21 1.3 8
4. Thanks to CPD, teachers may take their careers to the next level by taking advantage of mentorship opportunities. 3 1.2 10
5. Teachers provided peer observation with more confidence as a result of CPD. 3.52 1.4 1
6.CPD has strengthened the emphasis on peer assistance rather than supervisory leadership. 3.35 1.3 4
7. The peer observation assisted in identifying a specific CPD topic for colleague teachers. 3.41 1.4 3
8. Continuing professional development can help mentor-making teachers achieve their goals. 3.07 1.2 9
9. Mentors were able to develop a supportive supervisory relationship and use effective counseling techniques because to CPD. 3.35 1.3 4
10. The growth of in-school coaching is encouraged and supported through CPD. 3.23 1.3 6

The average score and standard deviation for item 1 in Table 3 were (M=3.22) and (SD=1.29), respectively. As a consequence of this conclusion, it is fair to conclude that CPD workshops improved teachers' grasp of follow-up, making it simpler for them to engage in their mentoring process. This data suggests that, whereas CPD in the literature focuses on teachers' enhanced awareness of follow-up as a result of CPD, it only has a moderate connection in public primary schools. This item also has a rank value of (R= 7), which is the lowest of all the ranks. The following statement was made by one of the respondents, and it is rather telling:

The instruction on how to create mentoring was one of the best things I gained from the CPD program. I wasn't as professional, organized, or emotionally secure as I am now because of this strong mentorship expertise. I am convinced that if we want a lot more responsible and accountable mentoring, we must continue to invest in training, which is the foundation for effective CPD implementation. The majority of respondents in Table 3 question 2 had a moderate reaction to: “CPD assisted instructors in supporting the practice of collaborative peer observations in the classroom.” With a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=3.43, SD=1.37, R= 2), the majority of respondents had a moderate reaction to: “CPD assisted instructors in supporting the practice of collaborative peer observations in the classroom.” In the qualitative portion of the poll, one respondent said the following, which matched the enumerative value:

The importance of CPD in professional peer evaluation is obvious. As is evident, when doing peer observation and providing feedback to co-workers, your communication style's integrity and honesty are most important. The topic of creating a pleasant collaborative working culture based on mutual interest was promoted by CPD. The average score and the standard deviation of the responders for item 3 in Table 3 was (M=3.21) and (SD= 1.28) respectively. As a consequence of this finding, it is feasible to conclude that moderately teachers increased their performance with the help of CPD and mentorship. This result is telling us though CPD has got to do something with mentorship though its nexus is moderate. This item also has got a rank value of (R= 8) which is still below half priority. For item 4 in Table 3, the responders' average score and standard deviation were (M=3) and (SD=1.2), respectively. As a result of this conclusion, it is reasonable to assume that thanks to CPD, teachers may take their careers to the next level by taking advantage of mentorship opportunities moderately. This finding indicates that, while CPD in the literature has to do with careers development to the next level, it has a nexus in public elementary schools, where teachers have generally proven that they are moderately improving their career to the next level. This object has a rank value of (R= 10) as well, which is the lowest of all the ranks.

A respondent made the following comment, and it is rather telling: The Ministry of Education is now developing a carrier development and licensing program at both public and private institutions. When a teacher moves up the level scale, his CPD portfolio track record is very important. Although the school's quantitative results aren't as excellent as they might be, a large number of teachers have advanced in their careers as a consequence of wage increases, which is a direct outcome of the CPD program's adoption. With a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=3.52, SD=1.41, R= 1), the majority of respondents in Table 3 question 5 had a moderate reaction to: “Teachers provided peer observation with more confidence as a result of CPD.” One respondent said the following in the qualitative section of the survey, which matched the enumerative value. To the best of my knowledge, our teachers are now able to conduct peer observation without difficulty as a result of the CPD program.' I recall how difficult it was for even the most experienced teachers to arrange and conduct peer observation a few years ago. The issue was that in our society, we are not willing to state openly what we consider to be flaws. However, as I've improved, I've seen a greater number of teachers.

The average score and standard deviation for item 6 in Table 3 were (M=3.35) and (SD=1.34), respectively. As a consequence of this conclusion, it is fair to conclude that moderately CPD has strengthened the emphasis on peer assistance rather than supervisory leadership. This data suggests that, whereas CPD in the literature focuses on strengthened the emphasis on peer assistance, it only has a moderate connection in public primary schools. This item also has a rank value of (R= 4), which is the better rank. For item 7 in Table 3, the responders' average score and standard deviation were (M=3.41) and (SD=1.36), respectively. As a result of this conclusion, it is reasonable to assume that thanks to CPD, the peer observation assisted in identifying a specific CPD topic for colleague teachers. This object has a rank value of (R= 3) as well, which is among the higher ranks. A respondent made the following comment, and it is rather telling:

When we do a peer assessment, we will obtain significant issues for action research or valuable input problems for strategic planning preparation, in addition to the teacher's strengths and weaknesses. As we all know, whether it's a long-term or short-term strategy, it all starts with brainstorming difficulties. Peer assessment will be a valuable source in a particular school setting.

The majority of respondents in Table 3 of question 8 had a moderate reaction to continuing professional development can help mentor-making teachers achieve their goals., with a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=3.07, SD=1.23, R= 9). As it has also 9-order list, it is still in moderate level of hierarchy. Again, With a mean, standard deviation, and rank score of (M=3.35, SD=1. 34, R= 4), the majority of respondents in Table 3 question 9 had a moderate reaction to: Mentors were able to develop a supportive supervisory relationship and use effective counselling techniques because to CPD. Finally, for item 10 of the same table, the responders' average score and standard deviation were (M=3.23) and (SD=1.29), respectively. As a result of this conclusion, it is reasonable to assume that the growth of in-school coaching is encouraged and supported through CPD. This finding indicates that, while CPD in the literature has to do with in school coaching, it has a nexus in public elementary schools, where teachers have generally proven that they are moderately improving by using the school coaching system. This object has a rank value of (R= 6) as well, which is a medium rank. A respondent made the following comment, and it is rather telling:

Before an issue spirals out of control, due to a CPD program at the school, each staff member will be able to recognize his or her own strengths and limitations, allowing them to continue or develop on a timely basis. Similarly, because CPD is being implemented at the school level, the top leadership load will be modest, and the higher leader will have considered strategic planning.

Summary of the finding

The study's main goal was to assess the link of CPD with teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, and mentoring and peer observation in Addis Ababa Gulele sub city’s public schools. To achieve this aim, the following research questions were raised:

  1. Does CPD have significant impact on the teachers’ teaching competence in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools?
  2. Does CPD have significant impact on the teachers’ action research preparation in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools?
  3. Does CPD have meaningful impact on the on the teachers’ mentoring and peer observation activities in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools?

Based on the study questions posed, after making a review of related literature purposive, availability, and simple random sample techniques were all utilized to pick 340 respondents. These respondents' opinions were acquired using a questionnaire including closed and open-ended items, rank order, and a Likert scale. Department heads, principals, vice principals, CPD facilitators, Woreda education office experts, cluster supervisors, and sub city education office experts were chosen using the available sampling approach since by default they are the only once..

The data collected from the devices was analysed using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The data was tabulated and encoded on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 26.00). Mean scores, standard deviations, and rank were employed in the quantitative data analysis. In the qualitative data (the data mainly gathered from the interview) analysis, descriptive statements were employed and quantitatively with average mean scores ranging from 1.00-2.49 for low, 2.50-3.49, 3.50-4.49, and 4.50-5.00 for moderate, high, and very high, respectively.

A. The finding of the study revealed that the teachers' classroom activities are moderately improved through continuing professional development.

B. The study results indicated that CPD assists teachers in expanding their expertise moderately.

C. The finding of the study showed that CPD aids in the improvement of learning and teaching standards highly.

D. It was made known by this study that, school based CPD aids in the implementation of continuous assessment techniques highly.

E. It was identified by this study that CPD enables colleagues to share their experiences with their teachers effectively.

F. The finding of the study showed that Professional teaching licenses are renewed with the aid of CPD moderately.

G. Moderate respondents replied that the CPD aids in the creation of instructional materials moderately.

H. As shown in the findings, the majority of respondents replied that CPD aids in the identification of special needs students and the provision of assistance to them moderately.

I. The study results indicated that CPD aids in the implementation of effective time management in the classroom highly.

J. Most teacher respondents believed that moderately CPD makes it easier to do action research.

K. This study indicated that Teachers were moderately encouraged to do action research by the school administrators and vice principals.

L. The study results showed that moderately teachers’ research quality increased as a result of the CPD program.

M. It was revealed that CPD assisted teachers moderately in supporting the practice of collaborative peer observations in the classroom.

N. It was identified by this study that moderately teachers provided peer observation with more confidence as a result of CPD.

O. The result of this study showed that moderately mentors were able to develop a supportive supervisory relationship and use effective counselling techniques because to CPD.

P. Moreover, the finding of the study showed that the growth of in-school coaching is encouraged and supported through CPD.

In a final summary, based on the finding it is possible to sum up that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation activity in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s Gulele sub city’s public schools

Concluding remark

Based on the major findings, the following conclusions were drawn.

A. The finding of the study indicated that the teachers' classroom activities are moderately improved through continuing professional development. From this we can conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers' classroom activities at moderate level. And, it can be concluded as CPD have moderate impact on the teachers’ teaching competence in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

B. As shown in the findings, the contribution of school based CPD for the improvement of classroom activities CPD assists teachers in expanding their expertise moderately. From this we can conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers' to be relatively well- managed and organized subject methodology expert.

C. Teachers were satisfactorily implementing and using teaching aids for the improvement of learning and teaching standards highly. From this finding we can conclude that school based CPD activities by leads teachers to use the needed instructional aids and as a result they are systematically and collaboratively alleviating professional challenges. Therefore, CPD have higher impact on the teachers’ teaching aid usage in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

D. The finding of the study indicated that school based CPD aids in the implementation of continuous assessment techniques highly. From this we can conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) highly improved the teachers' continuous assessment implementation techniques significantly. And, it can be concluded as CPD has significant impact on the teachers’ continuous assessment implementation in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

E. As shown in the findings, CPD enables colleagues to share their experiences with their fellow teachers significantly. From this we can conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) CPD have significant impact on the teachers' willingness to share their experiences with their fellow –teachers in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

F. The finding of the study indicated that the teachers' professional teaching licenses are renewed with the aid of CPD moderately. From this we can conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers' Professional teaching licenses are being renewed with the aid of CPD moderately. And, it can be conclude as CPD has moderate impact on the teachers’ professional teaching licenses updating in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

G. As shown in the findings, the contribution of school based CPD aids in the identification of special needs students and the provision of assistance to them moderately. From this we can conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers' in the identification of special needs students and the provision of assistance to them moderately in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

H. The finding of the study indicated that school based CPD aids CPD aids in the implementation of effective time management in the classroom highly. From this we can conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) highly improved the teachers' in the implementation of effective time management in the classroom significantly. This finding can be concluding as CPD has significant impact on the teachers’ effective time management in the classroom in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

I. The finding of the study indicated that the teachers' were moderately encouraged to do action research by the school administrators and vice principals. From this we can conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers' action research preparation motive. And, it can be concluded as CPD has moderate impact on the teachers’ action research preparation calibres in Addis Ababa, Gulele sub city’s public schools.

Generally, based on the overall finding it is possible to conclude that Continuous Professional Development (CPD) moderately improved the teachers’ teaching competence, action research preparation, mentoring and peer observation activity in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s Gulele sub city’s public schools.

References