Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Texas, Texas, USA
Received: 04-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JVS-22-82947; Editor assigned: 07-Nov-2022, PreQC No. JVS-22-82947 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Nov-2022, QC No. JVS-22-82947; Revised: 28-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JVS-22-82947 (R); Published: 05-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2581-3897.6.5.001
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Domesticated animals raised in an agricultural field as livestock produce a variety of consumer goods such meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather and wool in addition to providing labour. The word “Livestock” is sometimes used exclusively to describe animals raised for human consumption and other times only to describe farmed ruminants like cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. In the US, horses are regarded as livestock. Pork, veal, beef and lamb are all considered red meat by the USDA along with all other forms of animal. It is an element of contemporary agriculture. It still plays a significant economic and cultural role in many communities. Intensive animal farming has mostly replaced traditional livestock production methods. While intensive animal farming enhances the produce of many commercial products, it also has a detrimental effect on public health, the environment and animal welfare. Particularly large contributors to agricultural greenhouse gas emissions are meat, dairy products and sheep.
Traditional animal husbandry included not only providing the household with the food but also they require fuel, fertiliser, clothing, transportation and draught power. The Maasai obtained the animal's goods such as wool, eggs, milk and blood (by the Maasai) while it was still alive whenever it was practical. Traditional transhumance involved the seasonal movement of people and cattle between set summer and winter pastures, in montane locations, the summer pasture was located high in the mountains and the winter pasture was located in the valleys. Both intense and extended animal care is possible.
Animals in extensive systems frequently roam at freely or under a herdsman's supervision for their protection from predators. In the Western United States, ranching is done with sizable herds of cattle that graze extensively on both public and private properties. Similar cattle stations can be found in Australia, South America and other countries with big landmasses. Sheep, Deer, Ostrich, Emu, llama and Alpaca have all been raised using ranching practises. In the United Kingdom's uplands, Pigs and poultry can search for food in rural areas and in some African villages, chickens can go months without food while still producing one or two eggs per week. On the other hand, animals are frequently intensively managed in more Westernized regions of the world. Dairy cows may be kept in zero-grazing situations with all of their forage being brought to them. Beef cattle may be kept in high density feedlots, pigs may be housed in climate-controlled buildings and never be allowed outside and poultry may be raised in barns and kept in cages as laying birds under lighting-controlled conditions.
Animal snatching and predation by wild animals are common problems for livestock farmers. Animals like grey wolves, grizzly bears, cougars and coyotes are occasionally viewed as threats to livestock in North America. Predators in Eurasia and Africa include wolves, spotted hyenas, crocodiles, tigers, lions, dholes, Asiatic black bears and other carnivores. Feral dogs, jaguars, anacondas and spectacled bears are dangers to livestock in South America. In Australia, wedge-tailed eagles, foxes and dingoes are common predators. Domestic dogs can also pose a hazard by attacking out of instinct while leaving the body preservation.