Department of Environmental Science, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Received: 30-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. JEAES-22-60715; Editor assigned: 03-Oct-2022, Pre QC No. JEAES-22-60715 (PQ); Reviewed: 17- Oct-2022, QC No. JEAES-22-60715; Revised: 24-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. JEAES-22-60715 (R); Published: 31-Oct-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2347-7830.10.S4.005
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
In most developed countries, domestic waste disposal is funded from a national or local tax which may be related to income, or property values. Commercial and industrial waste disposal is typically charged for as a commercial service, often as an integrated charge which includes disposal costs. This practice may encourage disposal contractors to opt for the cheapest disposal option such as landfill rather than the environmentally best solution such as re-use and recycling.
Financing of solid waste management projects can be overwhelming for the city government, especially if the government see it as an important service they should render to the citizen. Donors and grants are a funding mechanism that is dependent on the interest of the donor organization. As much as it is a good way to develop a city's waste management infrastructure, attracting and utilizing grants is solely reliant on what the donor considers as important. Therefore, it may be a challenge for a city government to dictate how the funds should be distributed among the various aspect of waste management.
In some areas like Taipei, the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of rubbish they produce. Waste is collected by the city council only if it is put in government issued rubbish bags. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate. Another example from a country that enforces a waste tax is Italy. Instead of using government issued bags like Taipei, the tax is based on two rates: fixed and variable. The fixed rate is based on the size of the house while the variable is determined by the amount of people living in the house. The World Bank finances and advises on solid waste management projects using a diverse suite of products and services, including traditional loans, results-based financing, development policy financing, and technical advisory. World Bank-financed waste management projects usually address the entire lifecycle of waste right from the point of generation to collection and transportation, and finally treatment and disposal [1-5].
This section is an excerpt from Landfill. A landfill site, also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump, or dumping ground, is a site for the disposal of waste materials. Landfill is the oldest and most common form of waste disposal, although the systematic burial of the waste with daily, intermediate and final covers only began in the 1940s. In the past, refuse was simply left in piles or thrown into pits; in archeology this is known as a midden. Some landfill sites are used for waste management purposes, such as temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or for various stages of processing waste material, such as sorting, treatment, or recycling. Unless they are stabilized, landfills may undergo severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during an earthquake. Once full, the area over a landfill site may be reclaimed for other uses.
Traditionally, the waste management industry has been a late adopter of new technologies such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, GPS and integrated software packages which enable better quality data to be collected without the use of estimation or manual data entry. This technology has been used widely by many organizations in some industrialized countries. Radio frequency identification is a tagging system for automatic identification of recyclable components of municipal solid waste stream.