Department of Veterinary Sciences, Cornell University, New York, USA
Received date: 06/12/2021; Accepted date: 20/12/2021; Published date: 27/12/2021
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Sufficient knowledge of animal parasites and active application of that knowledge will help protect the country's livestock industry.
Parasites are organisms that live in or on another organism and feed on other organism or "host." Animal and human parasites occur in a variety of forms including helminths such as worms, arthropods such as mites, and mosquitoes, and protozoa. There are more than 1,000 species of parasites that affect livestock around the world. They can be roughly categorized externally or internally depending on where they live on the host.
1. External parasites: They often confuse the host by biting the skin, digging holes, or otherwise irritating. They can cause serious illnesses such as mange and scabies that affect the health and growth of animals.
2. Internal parasites: They inhabit the blood and tissues of the animal's body. Some organisms invade animals when they swallow contaminated food or water. Others dig through the skin, reach the bloodstream, and settle in a favorable location for maturity and reproduction. These parasites often interfere with food digestion and assimilation, causing stunted growth, temporary or permanent injury, or death.
Both external parasites and internal parasites can weaken the animal's immune system and create a favourable condition for bacterial infections. In severe cases, these diseases can also be deadly. Parasites have been responsible for economic losses ever since humans first undertook the domestication of animals. Farmers and ranchers whose herds are infected with parasites pay higher costs to raise sick animals and earn less because of lower production. Economic losses occur not only when animals die, but also when they are unable to perform their regular work, or when they produce inferior meat, milk, wool, hides, or eggs.
The impact of internal and external parasitism on productivity of farm animals is considered for cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. The parasitic challenges experienced and the consequences of those challenges are dynamic, with management practices including environmental, livestock and pasture management, nutritional status, the host's ability to develop effective immunity, and this play an important role includes the percentages that may be fulfilled. Much of our assessment of the effects of infection comes from pathophysiological and nutritional studies using artificial invasion. A common feature of all pests is that reducing food intake reduces the efficiency of food utilization, but in some cases it induces increased nutritional demand as a result of damage or loss of host tissue. Assessing the impact on field productivity is technically very difficult, and it is not only the manager's goals for the performance of a particular livestock category, but also the various challenges determined by environmental and management. Decisions should be taken into account. Parasites are a major cause of livestock disease and production loss, often causing significant economic loss and affecting animal welfare. In addition to the impact on animal health and production, control measures are costly and often time consuming. The main concern is the development of resistance to many chemicals used to control worms, lice and blue bottles.
Planned prevention programs are needed to minimize the risk of asymptomatic (invisible) loss in the development of parasitic diseases and animal production and to ensure the most efficient use of control chemicals. The integrated parasite control program is optimal with minimal chemical use by integrating prophylactic treatment, parasite monitoring programs, and non-chemical strategies such as diet, genetics, and scope control. The purpose is to provide a variety of parasite control.