Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Received date: 06/12/2021; Accepted date: 20/12/2021; Published date: 27/12/2021
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Veterinary anesthesia is anesthesia performed on a non-human animal by a veterinarian or a registered veterinarian. Anesthesia is used on animals in a wider range of situations than humans because animals cannot participate in specific diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Veterinary anesthesia includes anesthesia for the most important animal species such as dogs, cats, horses, cows, sheep, goats and pigs, as well as everything else that requires veterinary care such as birds, pocket animals and wildlife.
Anesthesia supervised by a qualified technician is safer than anesthesia without a technician. In most private veterinary practice, technicians perform and monitor anesthesia under the supervision of their doctor. In many academic institutions, anesthesia technicians work with veterinary students to guide and monitor cases of anesthesia. The Academy of Anesthesia and Analgesia Veterinary Technicians is an interim university of the North American Association of Veterinary Technicians and is responsible for approving technicians as anesthesia specialists. To specialize, the technician must be a state-approved technician and have 6,000 hours of veterinary work, 40 hours of anesthesia training, evidence of anesthesia skills, and a comprehensive written exam.
Applications in animals
Anesthesia is necessary for many surgeries that require the patient to be immobile, unconscious, and painless. In addition, anesthesia aims to minimize the surgical stress response. In addition, certain diagnostic procedures require anesthesia, especially gastric or airway endoscopy, bone marrow samples, and possibly ultrasonography. Aggressive animals may require anesthesia to perform a physical examination and to draw blood for the examination. Exotic animals often require anesthesia for simple interventions (such as x-rays and catheter placement) due to the shortage of livestock. Animals may require anesthesia for the following treatment procedures: B. Urethral catheterization to remove obstruction, injection into a mass, or collection of water from the eye to treat glaucoma.
Cats and dogs are often anesthetized for surgical procedures. Small animals are most often given general anesthesia due to routine procedures, small patient size, eligibility for general anesthesia, and higher levels of control. By using a balanced anesthesia protocol and using a variety of drugs with different effects, you can avoid high doses of just one drug. The combination of sedatives and opioids, for example, reduces inhalation anesthesia and improves cardiovascular stability. A one-year study in a teaching hospital shows that dogs and cats usually have a one-ninth risk of anesthesia complications and a onethird risk of death.
Horses and ruminants
Many interventions can only be performed on standing horses with strong sedative effects. Some procedures may require general anesthesia depending on the location of surgery (such as castration). Other procedures for horses require general anesthesia with inhalation anaesthetics. Due to its complex physiology, horses suffer from many difficulties as performance animals that can make anesthesia difficult.
Anesthesia of exotic animals (guinea pigs, rabbits, birds) is demanding, demonstrating a higher perianal mortality rate for these species compared to dogs and cats. These animals are difficult to make good for several reasons. Few studies have been conducted on safe and effective drug doses for specific animal species. Exotic pets often "hide" the fact that they are ill, and by the time the owner becomes aware of the pet's illness, the illness progresses considerably. The unique anatomy and physiology of exotic pets poses challenges to anesthesia management.