Department of Wildlife, University of California, California, USA
Received: 13-May-2022, Manuscript No. JEAES-22-63374; Editor assigned: 17- May-2022, Pre QC No. JEAES-22-63374 (PQ); Reviewed: 31- May -2022, QC No JEAES-22- 63374; Revised: 07-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JEAES-22-63374 (A); Published: 14-Jun-2022, DOI:10.4172/23477830.10.04.004
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Ecological succession refers to the progression of structural and compositional changes in ecosystems. Ecologists disagree on whether succession is a community process or the result of individual species interacting with one another and with their surroundings. Modern ecologists’ point of view. The study of species interactions has increased interest in vegetation as a mosaic. When there is an intermediate level of disturbance, landscape biodiversity may be at its peak. The appearance of species at different stages of succession appears to be unique to the particular vegetation; the rate of species loss from communities appears to decrease logarithmically. The process by which a region’s species and habitat mix changes over time is referred to as ecological succession. These communities gradually replace one another until they reach a “climax community,” such as a mature forest, or until they are disturbed, such as by a fire. Ecological succession is a fundamental concept in ecology. Ecological succession caused by shifting cultivation from different countries and forest types. Changes in soil conditions and various aspects of vegetation were discussed. Species richness, diversity, aboveground biomass, basal area, tree/canopy height, plant density, and species composition are among these characteristics.
It may be difficult to generalise from all of the results because they are very site specific, and comparing across studies may be difficult because the number of fallow stands, plot size, and strategies used to evaluate plant changes along succession varied across studies. Crop yield is also taken into account in terms of control achievement. Change in the environment is a driving force in succession. Fertility, irrigation, and community structure are all used to manipulate and control the environment in modern, conventional agriculture. As previously stated, humans' ability to dominate the environment rather than adapt to it contrasts sharply with all other species' ability to adapt to their environment. Few natural ecosystems have unaffected species composition. Bronowski reminds us that we are more than "figures inside the panorama; we form the landscape." It is common to misinterpret Genesis 1:28, which states, "Be fruitful and multiply, fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, and every living factor that moves on earth." We have multiplied and filled, but if we are to survive, we must not dominate and subdue; instead, we must care for and protect what has been given to us. Agriculture, the most important human activity, has unavoidable environmental effects, some of which are negative. In agricultural crop communities, creating conditions in which the crop dominates is the sine qua non of weed management. In cropped fields, it is frequently accompanied by the dominance of a few weeds (rarely only one). Weed removal and control open up niches for different species to move into, but not always immediately. As a result, weed control, particularly successful control, is frequently a never-ending process. Is it necessary? Weed control may be best designed when it achieves less than complete control, and thus is less successful at creating niches and an endless cycle of succession. Its primary goal will be to manage communities over time, rather than to control or eliminate individuals in the current population. The best weed management systems may combine techniques to achieve the desired level of control, but not in a completely open environment that encourages the arrival of new weeds that are not controlled by current techniques, making them more difficult to control. Although drawing conclusions about vegetation changes along succession is difficult, forest structures such as basal area and canopy height show a relatively obvious increasing trend regardless of location or type of forest. Changes in species richness, diversity, and composition, on the other hand, tend to vary greatly between studies.