NIET, National Institute of Medical Science, Delhi, India
Received date: 18/10/2021; Accepted date: 02/11/2021; Published date: 09/11/2021
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The latest discoveries in nanocrystals science are resolving the challenges associated with the innovation of nanomedicine to be considered as a whole or the constituent of it in drug delivery, vaccines, imaging tools, and high-throughput screening platforms through illustrating on nanoscale for interpreting biological phenomena. The probing techniques, elucidation and interpretation methods are originating newfangled forecasts that can be utilized in developing treatment methodology and designing new techniques for diagnosis and prevention of diseases.  The crystalline character of these nanocrystals adds new features in the existing physiognomies of nanomedicine and hence used in construction, repairing, monitoring, controlling, and enhancing human biological systems for preparing better defense by performing on the molecular level. These features were designed via top-down and bottom-up approaches and applied for developing a sustained drug release scheme. These approaches can be applied to reduce the amount of doses to the concerned patients.  According to colloid chemistry, the sizes of these nanocrystals are around 100 nm or even below 20 nm and these sizes are similar to biomolecules, i.e., enzymes and receptors, and therefore can perform at the same level effectively.
To expose the biological processes at the level of nanoscale, the physical and chemical properties of nanocrystals are observed somewhere between bulk solids and molecules.  That is why, these novel features, nanocrystals were considered superior materials that are crucial components in many human activities. As an example, the size of hemoglobin is approximately  nanometers in diameter, and it is the molecule perform oxygen transport in red blood cells. Nanocrystals can perform as small probes to inspect the cellular machinery without creating any interference because of their unique size-dependent properties. Whenever the size of nanocrystals decreases, it reduces the effective surface area and, finally, affects the solubility and bioavailability.  Nanoscale devices enter most cells, moving out of blood vessels and can circulate through the body. Additionally, nanocrystals are spurring the development of more sophisticated tools for detecting diseases, such as cancer and atherosclerosis, at early stages and performing neurosurgery.
Engineered nanodevices and nanostructures composed of nanocrystals applied for preventing disease (myalgia, hyposmia, hypogeusia, headache, and altered sensorium), central nervous system manifestations such as intracerebral hemorrhage, encephalo-myelitis, ischemic stroke, and acute myelitis, peripheral nervous manifestations such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bell's palsy, and skeletal muscle manifestations such as rhabdomyolysis, traumatic injury, relieving pain, preserving and improving human health. The main neurological disorders were vomiting, epileptic crises, headache, dizziness, ataxia, altered consciousness, and neuralgia. The main presumed diagnoses were acute viral meningitis/encephalitis in patients, hypoxic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disease patient with possible acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and patients with CoV related to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nanocrystals applied for immunohistochemistry, cellular imaging, DNA diagnostics, immunoassays, and bio-separation of specific cell populations.  Nanocrystals used as nanoscale materials and an alternative of nanomaterials and found widespread uses in biomedicine.  By applying the molecular machine and devices, many medical disorders and diseases can be treated using molecular tools and devices and finally these treatment methodologies improved human health at the molecular scale.  Nanotherapeutics has great potential and has displayed unique advantages recently in clinical outcomes compared to conventional drugs. It was evidenced from the literature that nanotherapeutics have remarkably featured and highlighted as a main scientific source form last three decades and emerged as a field of interest for the researchers worldwide. These facts can be witnessed by the existence of nanomedical products commercialized globally in this time span. Researchers are trying to clear the associated barriers and challenges and make them proficient as per the future demand.
Here, author presents an overview on pharmaceutics and nanotechnology: applications of nanocrystals in nanomedicine conventional nanotherapeutics that have been widely investigated so far.  It was believed that this discussion will be successful in designing next-generation high-efficient nanotherapeutics that will have a remarkable effectiveness. The understanding of pharmaceutics and nanotechnology can be typified by the innovation of novel and functional nanodrugs that will have enhanced passive targeting potential including active targeting, and stimulus responsiveness.  Hence, this elucidation of the perceptions and theories is emphasizing the role of translating nanomedicine research in health care and elaborating on it by noting issues of safety evaluation, cost, regulatory hurdles, biological fate, and manufacturing.  Finally, this opinion underlined the main perspectives of the challenges and opportunities persisted in front of the scientists who are dealing with this exciting field “application of nanocrystals in nanomedicine”.
Author (Rajiv Kumar) gratefully acknowledges his younger brother Bitto for motivation.
Wherever necessary, relevant citations are included in the reference section.
The author has declared that no competing interest exists.