Department of Applied Educational Science, University of Namibia, Rundu, Namibia
Received: 08-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. JES-22-82837; Editor assigned: 12-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. JES-22-82837(PQ); Reviewed: 26-Dec-2022, QC No. JES-22- 82837; Revised: 02-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JES-22- 82837(R); Published: 09-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.4172/ JES.8.7.002
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Recognition of individual performance of educators is the most crucial and success factor that determines the future, growth and professional development of educators in any education system of a country. This phenomenological hermeneutics project seeks to explore and provide an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences and attitudes of educators regarding the implementation and impact of the Public Service Management (PSM) circular on the job grades of educators. The (PSM) circular no.6 of 2013 from the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) was critically analysed by adopting a qualitative research approach using document analysis to guide the development of instruments. A qualitative research approach was executed to conduct interviews and focus group discussions for assessing and collecting data among educators. The findings revealed disparities within the minimum and maximum job grades for educators. This paper demonstrates that the (PSM) circular was only embraced by a few educators; it discourages teacher education and weakens the provision for a decent standard of living for educators. This is placing PhD and diploma holders on the same job grades and remuneration. This study recommends a critical review of the entire reward strategy and philosophy, and the recognition of individual performance of educators to motivate educators to remain intent and on renewal with education and the advancement of modern technology.
Public service management; Circular; Teacher education; Job grade; Recognition of individual performance; Reward strategy; Remuneration
The individual performance of educators within the education fraternity of Namibia is not recognized. Educators are not rewarded and compensated fairly upon accumulation of new knowledge and accomplishment of new qualification. Contrary to this, in other countries such as the Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the United States of America (U.S.A) educators are rewarded and remunerated according to the knowledge they accumulate and the qualification they accomplish. It is worth significant to share this personal account of lived experiences with fellow educators who may find themselves in similar situations of unfair job rankings, rewards and compensation, on an international standpoint.
1. The (PSM) was entrusted to establish a reward strategy to improve the remuneration and benefits of educators.
2. The (PSM) circular followed on the previous salary structure where the minimum and maximum category for professionally qualified educators was “C” and “D”. Category “C” refers to a professionally qualified teacher having a three-year teacher’s diploma, this category is also regarded as the minimum entrance requirement for the teaching profession. Category “D” refers to a professionally qualified teacher holding a four-year teacher’s degree.
3. After the implementation of the (PSM) circular no. 6 of 2013, educators were graded according to the criteria as shown in Table 1.
|Job Grade||Rank||Position/Promotional/Non- Promotional||Qualification||National Qualifications Framework (NQF) Level|
|Grade 1||Permanent Secretary||Promotional||Bachelor’s degree||NQFL7|
|Grade 2||Under Secretary||Promotional||Bachelor’s degree||NQFL7|
|Grade 3||Director of Education||Promotional||Bachelor’s degree||NQFL7|
|Grade 4||Deputy Director||Promotional||Bachelor’s degree||NQFL7|
|Grade 5||School Principal, Inspector of Education and Chief Education officers||Promotional||Diploma/Bachelor’s degree||NQFL6 –NQFL7|
|Grade 6||Deputy Principals, Head of Department and Senior Education officers||Promotional||Diploma/Bachelor’s degree||NQFL6 –NQFL7|
|Grade 7||Educators/Teachers||Non-Promotional||Honour’s Bachelor’s/Master’s/PhD degree||NQFL8–NQFL10|
|Grade 8||Educators/Teachers||Non-Promotional||Bachelor’s degree/Advanced dipkoma||NQFL7|
Table 1. Biographical details of Participants.
Paradoxically, by looking at the table above, one can deduce that this system does not recognize individual performance, thus it cannot ensure job satisfaction to enhance teacher education or teachers’ professional development. The system further contradicts the Performance Management System (PMS), with states that performance of staff should be recognized in a fair, relevant and equitable manner, and should facilitate improved performance. Informal recognition of performance forms part of the continuous monitoring and feedback process between staff, supervisors and managers.
The Namibia Qualifications Authority (also referred to as the NQA) is a statutory body established by the Namibia Qualifications Authority Act No 29 of 1996.The NQA is committed to the promotion of quality education and training in Namibia through the development and management of a comprehensive and flexible National Qualifications Framework (NQF). Quality is also promoted by the NQA through the Accreditation of education and training providers in Namibia and their courses. The NQA wishes to assist the development of Namibia as a proud nation through putting in place systems and opportunities that allows all people to develop to their fullest potential without being hindered by unnecessary obstacles and barriers. The NQA believes that all people have a right to having their learning and abilities validly, fairly, reliably and equitably recognized regardless of when, how and where learning attainments and competences were attained. The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) consists of 10 levels, each defined by a set of level descriptors. The NQF is the system that records the credits assigned to each level of learning achievement in a formal way to ensure that the skills and knowledge that been learned are recognized throughout the country. The NQF has a set of principles and guidelines by which it operates towards the achievement of its objectives. The study also draws on the author’s own experience served as a school principal for seven years.
Moreover, these educators mentioned in job Grades 5-9 cannot move to the next higher job grade, regardless of any higher qualifications they can acquire. As a result, these educators can only advance to the next higher job grade by means of promotions. All professionally qualified educators having a university degree are placed on job grade 7, this includes NQF L8–NQF L10 respectively. Imagine, how can educators with different qualifications be placed on the same job grade and remuneration? In most cases, these educators have opted not to improve their qualifications because even if they obtain higher qualifications, they remain on the same job grade or category. Upon acquiring of higher qualifications, these educators are only rewarded with a mere cash bonus which is not even equal to or more than the amount spent towards such qualification. Based on these experiences, educators have resorted to compete for promotions in order to be adjusted to a higher job grade in order to earn high compensation, which is not possible to everyone. Worst of it, educators holding a PhD and diploma are placed on the same job grade and remuneration. Consequently, in order to advance to the next higher job grade, educators have to compete with other candidates for promotion and it becomes extremely very difficult to obtain promotion because educators have to compete with nearly 1000 candidates for a single post or position. Ideally, educators could pursue with studies in order to be adjusted to higher job grades and remunerations, instead of competing with huge number of candidates via interviews. Promotion is seen as the only process that enables educators to receive higher job grades and remuneration; this in itself does not inspire educators to be on renewal with teacher education, as far as when subject and methodological terrain is concerned.
Significance of the problem
Job satisfaction, work engagement and rewards: The author did not find any sufficient previous research regarding the impact of the (PSM) circular on educators’ job satisfaction, work engagement and continued teacher education in Namibia. The author intends to demonstrate that the PSM circular has a negative impact on work engagement and continued teacher education opportunities. During the implementation of the PSM circular, educators expressed dissatisfaction on how their jobs were graded, which lead them to appeal against the PSM. Teacher education is vigorously discouraged because their individual performance was not recognized and the cash bonus was not a fair reward at all. The cash bonus was money aimed for rewarding educators upon completion of a higher qualification. The challenging part is the fact that the cash bonus was very less, not equal or more than the amount spent by studying towards such qualification. Developing the self-esteem and self-worth is giving recognition towards the accomplishment of particular goals Kovjanic, Schuh and Jonas Takawira, Coetzee and Schreuder [1-3]. Money is believed to be the strongest factor to influence motivation and satisfaction of educators in South Africa.
Motivation and continued teacher education: Most researchers believe that improving effectiveness in teaching and learning should be the centre of preoccupation for any teacher education [4-6]. This paper points out that educators were weary and wary about the reward strategy on their job grades and they are left wondering about the future of education in Namibia. Against this background, due to being unhappy, there is an increasing tendency towards low morale among educators, ineffective practices used by educators and inconsistent attendance of educators at work places. Some schools lack vision, purpose and direction. This has left the public wondering about the future of our schools . Most researchers believe that the implementation of new systems is typically a lengthy and uneven process. They further believe that the replacement of systems with a new ‘’ideal’’ one sometimes gives people false hope . This condition mainly occurs due to poor planning by the education authorities . Marx argues that planning may fail because the educational leaders do not carry out the planning task with sufficient enthusiasm. Resistance to change and planning should also not be excluded, as people do not like changes or renewal. Educational leaders often fall back on the defence mechanism of being satisfied with existing conditions [10-12]. What is needed is not the restoration of a system for the culture of teaching and learning but a transformation of a system for the culture of teaching and learning. The reward strategy does not need to be restored, but rather be transformed as far as the culture of teaching and teacher education is concerned.
This research aims to explore the educators’ experiences regarding the impact of (PSM) circular on job satisfaction, work engagement and continued teacher education. This research aims to replicate the study in different regions, trying to create awareness among education stake holders regarding the impact of the (PSM) circular on educators and the importance of job satisfaction, work engagement and continued teacher education.
Job satisfaction, work engagement and rewards
Pinikahana, Chappell, Roets, Poggenpoel, Myburgh defined job satisfaction as a state which is dependent on the interaction between employees, their personal characteristics, the working environment and the organization [13,14]. Simply put, this means that job satisfaction is a state that can be influenced and impacted by the interactions the employee has at work. This also means that certain factors would be more or less important for influencing the employee levels of job satisfaction, depending on individual personal characteristics. Furthermore, factors attached to the working environment and the organization includes pay, benefits, collegial relations, advancement opportunities [15,16]. Judge, Weiss, Kammeyer-Mueller and Hulin, further argues that intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions are the components of job satisfaction. Extrinsic job satisfaction factors include pay, promotional opportunities, benefits, working conditions, the manner of implementing policies and co-workers. Intrinsic job satisfaction impacts on a number of factors such as utilization of skills, feedback, task variety, autonomy and the meaning attached to the work. Work engagement is more concerned with personal involvement which is the motivational force one experiences by doing work that results in improved performance and practice at work [17-19]. Work engagement implies dedication, absorption and vigour. Dedication is the emotional component that comprises of a sense of significance, enthusiasm, challenge and pride. Absorption is the cognitive aspect that deals with full concentration, being happy and absorbed in by the work without noticing the time passing by. Vigour is regarded as the exuberant and resilient strength of the body or mind whilst working, stamina, putting in more efforts and continuing even if the task gets challenging [20-22]. The more satisfaction displayed by employees doing their jobs, the more engagement they show with their work, striving towards achieving the pre-determined organizational goals. Employees who are satisfied with their jobs are more flexible, adaptive and receptive to collaborate and undertake higher levels of work engagement [23,24]. Job satisfaction supersedes work commitment and is closely related to each other [25-27]. Researchers also believed that job satisfaction and work engagement has a very strong impact on organizational success. The more satisfaction displayed by the employees, the more engagement they show in their work without wanting to quit the organization. Fair remuneration corresponds positively with job satisfaction . Gellock reveals that providing employees with fair payment will ensure satisfactory and work of good quality from employees . The strongest factor to influence motivation and satisfaction of employees in South Africa was found to be money. Abdool Karrim Ismail argues that providing social support and job satisfaction to employees will avoid the risk of experiencing burnouts . According to Buitendach, Bosman and Labuschagne job satisfaction is also negatively related to job insecurity . Employees may experience lower levels of job satisfaction due to uncertainty of their future at work places, being part of that organization and having doubts about continuing with the job. Smit, De Beer and Pienaar also stressed that employees are less likely to experience job satisfaction when they experience job insecurity and work stressors (organizational and work specific demands and constraints) .
Better working relations may therefore impact on job satisfaction of colleagues by rendering and sharing periodic guidance, systematic advice and support with co-workers. Job satisfaction is a strong motivator of work commitment (organizational commitment). Job satisfaction corresponds with work commitment (organizational commitment) Okpara . This illustrates that when educators are satisfied in their work places, they are also more likely to promote the pride of the organization and remain committed to that specific organization. Discoveries show that employees who are satisfied with their jobs are likely to work harder to deliver service of high quality [34,35]. When employees are satisfied with their work they are likely to promote their pride of the organization and remain committed of rendering quality service to stake holders. Oosthuizen, Coetzee, and Munro argues that job satisfaction also prohibits turn over intensions . When employees are satisfied with their jobs they are bound to that organization without wanting to quit the organization.
Osborne defines reward as anything that can be valued and desired by the employee, and which the employer is able or willing to offer in exchange for the employee’s contribution . De Koker defines reward as all forms of monetary returns, tangible services and benefits which an employee receives as part of an employment relationship . Smit, De Beer and Pienaar refers extrinsic rewards to salary and benefits as well intrinsic rewards to personal goals, autonomy, and more challenging job opportunities. According to Lengnick-Hall the aim of forming an organization is to fulfil a specific mission or purpose. Such mission or purpose cannot be accomplished unless the organization acquires and selects the best suitable employees to achieve its desired goals and objectives. Adeyinka, Ayeni and Popoola mention that money remains the most significant motivational strategy . Groblel, Hossain stresses that the demands of relevant employees must be met if rewards must stimulate desired behaviour [40,41]. Strickland warns that if unfairness is perceived in the compensation system, employees become negative and rebellious and the opposite of motivation is forthcoming . Maziriri and Saurombe also accentuates that employees often compare their remuneration to that of fellow employees and/or the market, and have an idea of their worth . They might quit their jobs for the better paying ones, if they feel underpaid. Robbins, postulates that employees has different needs, thus, it is cardinally important not to treat them all alike, in order to understand what is important to each employee . This will result in individualized goals, levels of involvement, and rewards to align with individual needs.
Motivation and continued teacher education
Motivation is ‘’a psychological process that causes the arousal, direction and Persistence of voluntary actions that are goal oriented”. Meanwhile, Akgunduz and Eryilmaz believes in defining motivation as the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need . Motivation is the desire to achieve beyond expectations, being driven by internal rather than external factors, and to be involved in a continuous striving for improvement . This implies that employees can voluntarily sacrifice themselves by engaging in training opportunities in order to remain abreast with future developments related to their jobs.
Rothmann and Rothmann state that recognition is one of the factors of motivation that drives employee behaviour in the work place . Baumeister argues that providing recognition to the achievement of particular goals is the most critical part or process of developing self-esteem and self-worth . Thus, the need for recognition itself becomes a drive. Employees tend to pursue goals that will be recognized and valued by those whose opinions and judgments are important to them: family, friends, peers and social groups, as well as work organizations. Dissatisfaction prevails when such recognition is not forthcoming.
According to Eigenhuis and Van Dijk most organizations often underestimate the importance of compensation in keeping top talent. Eigenhuis and Van Dijk further warns that money is the most important, whether in the form of wages, bonuses, stock options, company-paid medical insurance or any other things that may be given to people for performance . Money can also mean status or power. Some people may regard money as the utmost importance, while for other people it may not. Paying more assures better-qualified, more highly motivated employees who can be bound to the organization without wanting to quit the organization. To ensure that money has a meaning, whether as a reward for achievement or as a pleasure from accomplishment, is to base remuneration on performance. Therefore, most scholars believe that motivating people to pursue with education increases professional growth and organizational performance.
Job embeddedness is caused by being in satisfaction with training and development opportunities, career opportunities and job characteristics . When employees are given ample training and development opportunities, have chances of promotion and career change, they are likely to remain bound to that organization without wanting to quit the organization. Scholars believe that there is a positive relationship between rewards and employee engagement . This presupposes that fair rewards may motivate employees to be engaged with further training related to their jobs. Fullan asserts that “teachers must learn if learners are to succeed and learners must learn if society is to succeed” . Continued teacher education provides educators with the bonus of deepened insight and spiritual growth. “The accelerated growth of subject content as well as technological development demand that a teacher does not stagnate” . When the entire occupational group of educators are well equipped with knowledge and skills by virtue of their training, they do not only increase their individual self-image or the effectiveness of teaching in their classrooms, but they also enhance the image and status of the entire organization in the eyes of the community. Van Der Westhuizen also accentuates that initial training of our times can no longer be adequate; it may become anachronistic because of changes that may have taken place in scientific data. Santiago, argued that teachers are the most valuable resource in schools and as such, they are subjected to strive for educational standards. Sparks also stressed that educational staff development opportunities be concerned with teachers’ knowledge and skills as well as attitudes and approaches . Based on this, most researchers believe that improving effectiveness in teaching and learning should be the centre of preoccupation for any teacher education program. This suggests that the more training educators receive, the more chances for effective teaching and learning. This means that teaching and learning is likely to be maximally effective at the advantage of all learners.
This qualitative study adopted a phenomenological hermeneutics’ research approach using document analysis to guide the development of instruments. Hermeneutic phenomenology was selected as a suitable research methodology for the current study. This methodology allows interpretation and analysis of textual information in order to enhance the understanding of the meaning of day-to-day experiences of research participants. Hermeneutic research methodology is aimed at producing rich textual descriptions of the experiencing of selected phenomena in the life world of individuals that are able to connect with the experience of all of us collectively. Because phenomenology deals with the experience of individuals, this approach was used for getting in-depth understanding among educator’s lived experiences on the impact of the (PSM) circular on job grades; job satisfaction, reward strategy, remuneration and continued teacher education. The approach was hermeneutic because it allowed the researcher to explore and interpret these experiences in light of what they already knew about the topic under consideration (practical and theoretical knowledge). Hermeneutic phenomenology provides an in-depth understanding that seeks to explore and understand a central phenomenon. This approach deepens the understanding of the research context by virtue of extensive interactions with the participants. Hermeneutic phenomenology seeks to understand and describe the universal essence of a phenomenon. The project was phenomenological because it investigated the everyday experiences of human beings while suspending the researchers' preconceived assumptions about the phenomenon. This research was hermeneutic in nature because it only studied the lived experiences of humans to gain deeper insights into how people understand those experiences.
Population: By executing the convenience sampling procedure, the study sample consisted of 100 professionally qualified and experienced educators from both Kavango East and West regions. Each region comprised of 50 participants. Furthermore, the study interviewed 40 teachers, 5 school principals and 5 education officials in each region.
Data collection: Data was collected in view of a particular phenomenological hermeneutics perspective . Interview guides were developed and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data from a total of 100 educators in both regions. The researcher took ample time to compile the guide and ensure its overall relevance to the research questions. The interview guide included questions such as: tell us what professional development means to you; how important is professional development to your organization; what leadership support is needed to motivate educators towards professional development; what challenges have you encountered while studying towards a high qualification; and what challenges have you encountered upon accomplishing such a high qualification; do you have any intentions to quit your job or look for a better paid job; what is your personal perception about the entire job grading and remuneration system in the education sector. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Field notes were also taken during the data collection phase and were entered as data for the study. These notes include a description of the interview environment and thoughts of the researcher who conducted the interview. Once the interviews were completed, the entire data was transcribed verbatim.
Data analysis: The results were analyzed by using the Qualitative Summarizing Content Analysis technique and the hermeneutic phenomenology procedures. This method increases reliability and validity of conclusions and interpretations made from the gathered data . Following this technique and procedures, the focus is based on the expressions of the interviewee, and the reduction of text material to the main contents. The following S-rules of Mayring were applied during the analysis process: S1-rule: Paraphrasing, S2-rule: Generalization and S3-rule: Text reduction. Field notes allowed the researcher to return to the interview setting (in concept rather than actually visiting the site) while conducting an analysis of the collected data. The researcher also heard and reviewed the recorded data several times when analyzing data for the study. This allowed the researcher to be immersed in the data and think about what participants actually said/meant during the interviews. Following this step, the researcher reached out to participants for additional clarification. Final transcripts were also sent to participants to ensure that data was captured accurately. After approval was granted by the participants, the researcher highlighted the statements that appeared to reveal the topic under consideration. An inductive approach to thematic analysis was utilized in this study. The researcher reviewed each line of the transcripts and the field notes several times. Labels were used to highlight key phrases. In the process, phrases were compared to determine whether they fit under the already existing code or whether new codes needed to be developed. The phrases that represented the same concept were gathered into key thematic statements. Quotes from participants were used to support the existing themes. After an initial round of analysis, the researcher revisited the themes in order to identify areas that needed more inquiry. Following this exercise, themes were further refined and all the interviews/transcripts were revisited to examine key commonalities and differences. This led to the identification of final themes that described the lived experiences and attitudes of educators regarding the implementation of the Public Service Management (PSM) circular on the job grades of educators. The final analysis was then confirmed by the researcher.
Mayring mentions that based on these S-rules, it was suitable to deal with huge amounts of verbal material in a fairly short time. Finally, data was organized, transcribed, categorized and interpreted into real meaning.
Rigor: The researcher considered to adopt several measures to enhance the trustworthiness of the study/research procedures. In order to ensure credibility, the researcher took time to establish a rapport with the participants prior to beginning the study. Adequate time was allocated for each interview and focus group discussions, and the location of each interview was chosen in collaboration with participants so that they could share their thoughts freely. Equally important, the researcher took notes during the interview sessions, collected appropriate demographic information, and audio-taped each interview. The researcher transcribed each interview and the transcripts were sent to the participants to establish the accuracy of data. In this way, these procedures helped to enhance the reliability of the findings of the study. Furthermore, the use of convenience sampling and the inclusion of necessary details with rich textual descriptions helped to increase the trustworthiness of the overall process.
Interviews were conducted with the educators from both Kavango East and West regions. The interviewees comprised of educators with different job grades, qualifications, experiences, sex and age groups. Nine educators were interviewed per school, and each interview lasted approximately 30 minutes. Five education officials were interviewed per region using the same manner and duration of time. The purpose of the interviews and focus group discussions was to investigate the impact of the implementation of the (PSM) circular and the outcomes of the (JEG) on the job grades, rewards, compensation, work commitment and continued teacher education of educators. The biographical details were obtained from interviewees and written down on a separate answer sheet. Focus groups comprised of approximately 4-5 members. Both interviews and focus group discussions were conducted at 5 schools in each region and lasted for approximately 4 hours at each school. It took the researcher almost 9 working days to conduct this research at 5 different schools in each region including the education officials at the regional directorate of education . Based on the literature review, it was deemed very necessary to provide a theoretical discussion on the following major themes: The importance of transforming the school into a learning organization.
Job satisfaction, job grade, remuneration, and work engagement
Educators were dissatisfied with the (PSM) circular because their individual performance were not recognized; educators were all regarded alike and placed on same job grade; educators were unfairly compensated and rewarded; and educators feel they are not motivated to work harder and want to quit their jobs to look for better ones with better salaries. Through the different modes of interactions with educators, the author observed that some school principals did not take their management duties of motivating teachers to engage in continued teacher education, and this has a very serious and negative impact on the school leadership and classroom practice. However, despite them not being in harmony with the reward strategy of the (PSM) circular, educators have opted to stagnate with teacher education rather than voting for strikes because of the fear to face unbearable consequences. “Employees who opt to strike will lose their income during the period that they are striking and this will directly affect their fringe benefits’’. This was outlined in the statement entitled Meeting with educators on improvement of salaries and benefits for public servants (Namibia, Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture, 2016, p. 4).Educators who are least qualified will deem it not necessary to be engaged with teacher education because they receive the same job grade and remuneration.
Motivation and continued teacher education
The current (PSM) circular does not encourage educators to pursue with teacher education because their individual performance is not recognized; even if they acquire higher qualifications they remain on same job grades and receive same remuneration like the least qualified ones; educators have resorted not to be intent and on renewal with teacher education and advances in modern technology. Those who are least qualified will deem it not necessary to be engaged with teacher education because they receive the same job grade and remuneration with the highly qualified educators. This situation is further exacerbated by the fact that the desire to achieve new knowledge through learning and to be intent and on renewal is virtually discouraged. Some educators have become redundant; some have lost their efficacies as professional educators because of having stagnated with furthering their education. The author intends to reveal that the PSM circular and the JEG exercise does not provide educators with fair reward and compensation, nor does it encourage job satisfaction, work engagement and teacher education. The PSM circular and the JEG exercise denoted poor planning, and as such, it does not recognize individual performance to motivate teacher education for enhancing teaching and learning in Namibian schools.
This research paper concludes that the (PSM) circular has a negative impact on job satisfaction, work engagement and continued teacher education opportunities. Educators have indicated that transforming the reward strategy as well as the grading system will have a positive impact on continued teacher education in Namibia. This in itself, plays a positive role on classroom and leadership practice. This project allowed the researcher to begin understanding the lived experiences and attitudes of educators regarding the implementation and impact of the Public Service Management (PSM) circular on the job grades of educators. These findings can help education authorities to carry out the planning task with sufficient enthusiasm and refrain from demonstrating resistance to change leadership behavior. These findings also suggests that educational authorities should not fall back on the defense mechanism of being satisfied with existing conditions faced by educators within the education fraternity.
This study recommends a critical review of the entire PSM circular and the JEG system, especially on the reward strategy and job matching methodologies with the purpose of encouraging educators towards job satisfaction, work engagement and continued teacher education. Furthermore, educators need to be rewarded fairly, their individual performance need to be recognized, they need to earn as they acquire new knowledge and skills; as well as when they acquire new approaches and attitudes related to their jobs. This will also inspire educators to keep abreast with teacher education in order to receive higher job grades and remuneration, instead of competing with thousands of candidates through interviews for a single post in order to be adjusted to higher job grades and salaries. Equally important, this will also result in fewer candidates competing for positions because there are alternative ways to get to the same job grade and remuneration. Thus, promotion will also not be only process that enables educators to receive higher job grades and compensation. Fullan asserts that “educators must learn if learners are to succeed and learners must learn if society is to succeed”.
My special heartfelt gratitude goes to Dr. A. Liveve for the support and motivation as well as persistent encouragement to undertake and produce this magnificent piece of academic work. You will receive the reward and blessing that you deserve.
The author declares no conflict of interest.
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