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^{1}Department of Mathematics, Islamabad Model College For Boys, Islamabad, Pakistan

^{2}Department Of Mathematics and Statistics, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan

- Corresponding Author:
- Munir Ahmed

Department Of Mathematics, Islamabad Model College For Boys, F-10/4, Islamabad, Pakistan

**E-mail:**[email protected]

**Received date:** 09/01/2018 **Accepted date:** 10/05/2018 **Published date:** 11/06/2018

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In this paper we discuss the representations of a full transformation semigroup over a finite field. Furthermore, we observe some properties of irreducibility representation of a full transformation semigroup and discuss the linear representation of a zero-adjoined full transformation semigroup. Moreover, we characterize the linear representation of a full transformation semigroup over a finite field Fq (where q is a prime power) in terms of Maschke’s Theorem. Finally, we observe that there exists an isomorphism between the full matrix algebra (Fq)m and the space of all linear transformation L(Fq m) on an m-dimensional vector space Fq m

Semigroup of transformations; Representation of semigroup; Finite field

Serre has given a comprehensive theory of linear representation of finite groups in [1]. It has been obtained in the group theory that the number of simple FG− modules is equal to the number of conjugacy classes of the group G such that the characteristic of the field F does not divide the order of G. A lot of work is done for the classification of groups in terms of its representation and characterization.

By Clifford, each element of a semigroup is uniquely determined by a matrix over a field and a complete classification of the representations of a particular class of a semigroups is given in [2-4]. Moreover, irreducible representations of a semigroup over a field is obtained as the basic extensions to the semigroup of the extendible irreducible representations of a group, and the representations of completely simple semigroup is also constructed in [2-4].

Stoll has given a characterization of a transitive representation, and obtained a transitive representation of a finite simple
semigroup, see [5]. The construction of all representations of a type of finite semigroup which is sum of a set of isomorphic groups
is also obtained. Munn obtained a complete set of inequivalent representations of a semigroup S which are irreducible in terms of
those of its basic groups of its principal factors. He also introduced the principal representations of a semigroup in [6]. A representation
of semigroup whose algebra is semisimple is characterized in [7,8]. The representation of a finite semigroup for which the
corresponding semigroup algebra is semisimple is also obtained. An explicit determination of all the irreducible representations
of *T _{n}* is due to Hewit and Zuckerman in [9].

There is a one-to-one correspondence between the representations of a group G and the nonsingular representations of the semigroup S, which preserves equivalence, reduction and decomposition [10].

In the case of an irreducible representation of a finite semigroup, the factorization can be avoided and an explicit expression
of such representation is given in [11]. We consider a full transformation semigroup* T _{n}* to obtain its combinatorial property
with regard to its irreducible representations. There exists a non-zero linear transformation satisfying some specific conditions in
Theorem 7.3.

It is observed that for the basis of a vector space , there is a natural one-to-one correspondence (between the resentations of a full transformation semigroup over a finite field Fq and those of the algebra Fq[] which preserves, equivalence, reduction and decomposition into irreducible constituents.

Consequently, we reinterpret the Maskhe Theorem [12] regarding the algebra Fq[] i.e., the algebra Fq[] is semisimple if and only if the characteristic of Fq does not divide the order mm of the full transformation semigroup .

The representation of full trasformation semigroup over a finite field is discussed in Section-8, specially the Maschke’s
theorem is restated for the semisimplicity of the semigroup algebra Fq[], see Theorem 8.1 Finally, a linear algebraic result
regarding the isomorphism between the full matrix algebra (Fq)_{m} and the space of all the linear transformations on F_{q}^{m} is given in
Theorem 8.2.

**Definition**

A transformation semigroup is a collection of maps of a set into itself which is closed under the operation of composition of functions. If it includes identity mapping, then it is a monoid. It is called a transformation monoid.

If (X,S) is a transformation semigroup then X can be made into semigroup action of S by evaluation, x.s=xs=y for s S, and x,y X. This is the monoid action of S on X, if S is a transformation monoid.

Hewitt and Zuckerman gives a treatment of the irreducible representation of the transformation semigroup on a set of finite cardinality [8]. The result for the case of a finite semigroup S with F[S] semisimple was given by Munn in [13].

The full reducibility and the proper extensions of irreducible representations of a group to those of a semigroup are the basic extensions.

THEOREM 2.2

Full reducibility holds for the representations of a semigroup S over the field F if and only if

Full reducibility holds for the extendible representations of G over F, and

The only proper extension of a proper representation of G to S is the basic extension [14].

A representation M of S is homomorphism of S into the multiplicative semigroup of all (α,α) matrices( where α is an arbitrary positive integer) such that M(x) ≠ 0 for some x S. If the set {M(x): x S} is irreducible i.e., if every (α,α) matrix is a linear combination of matrices M(x), then M is said to be an irreducible representation of S. The identity representation is the mapping that carries every x S into the identity matrix.

**Full transformation semigroup**

The idea of studying *T _{n}* was suggested by Miller (in oral communication). The problem of obtaining representations of semigroup
as distinct from groups have been first studied by Suskevic. Clifford has given a construction of all representations of a class
of semigroups closely connected with Tn. Ponizovski has pointed out some simple properties of

Example

The set S={e,a,x,y} is a semigroup under the multiplication. The Cayley’s multiplication table of S is given as follows [16].

If the mapping is given by then ф embeds S in . It can also be seen that the map is defined by

and

embeds S into

Notice that y is a right regular representation of S, where as defined above (where ψ(e), ψ(a), ψ(x), ψ(y) TS) is such that for any sS, we have

So ψ is a right regular representation of S.

Regular representation of a transformation semigroup

Let K denote the set of right zero elements of a semigroup S. Then, if and only if

(i) for all x in K, and all a,b in S, xa=xb implies a=b;

(ii) if α is any transformation of K, then there exists a in S such that xα = xa for all x K.

An element α of *T _{X}* is idempotent if and only if it is the identity mapping when restricted to Xα. Suppose that X is a set of
cardinality n. Then, the full transformation semigroup

If α *T _{X}* is of defect 1, then every other element of

Let X=S be a semigroup, an element ρ TS is said to be a right translation of S if x(yρ) = (xy)ρ for all x,y S and λ TX is said to be a left translation of S if (xλ)y = (xy)λ for any x,y S. The left and a right translations λ and ρ, respectively, are called linked if x(yl) = (xr)y for all x;y 2 S.

Note that λ_{a}λ = λ_{aλ} and ρaρ = ρ_{aρ}, if λ and ρ are linked, then

Let S = {e,f,g,α} be a semigroup with the operation “.” given by the Cayley’s table

**Cayley’s table**

The transformation

is a left translation which is not linked with any right translations of S. We recall the following proposition regarding the semisimple algebra.

An algebra A is a semisimple if and only if A-module of A is semisimple.

**Definition**

Let S be a semisimple with zero element z. The contracted algebra F_{0}[S] of S over F is an algebra over F containing a basis such that U0 is a subsemigroup of F_{0}[S] isomorphic with S. A semisimple algebra can also be regarded as a contracted semigroup algebra.

We recall the following facts regarding the representations of a semisimple algebra.

**Lemma**

(a) Let be an algebra having finite order over the field F, and let be a radical of . Then, every non-null irreducible representation of maps into 0, and so it is effectively a representation of the semisimple algebra / .

(b) Let ф be any faithful representation of a semisimple algebra and let P be an n*n matrix over τ Then, P is nonsingular
if and only if ф^{(n)}(P) is non-singular [18].

**THEOREM 4.4**

(6, Th. 5.7). An irreducible algebra of linear transformations is simple.

If A (F)n, then the transformation x → Ax of a vector space V is linear transformation τ of V to V, and the mapping A → A
is an isomorphism of (F)n upon the algebra *L*[T_{V}] of all linear transformations of V. A homomorphism ф of into (F)n is called a
representation of of degree n over F. In other words, to each element x of there corresponds an n*n matrix ф(x) such that

ф(x+y) = ф(x)+ф(y);

ф(xy) = ф(x)ф(y);

ф(αx) = αф(x):

for all x,y in *T _{N}* and α in F.

The irreducible representations of semigroups

Let f be an element of *T _{N}* . Then, f splits the set {1,2,..,n} into a number p of nonvoid disjoint subsets, each of the form {x:f(x)=a}
for some a rang( f). Obviously, f is determined by these sets and the corresponding a's. For nonvoid subset s of {1,2,…,n}, let
s* be the least element of s. Write the sets {x: f(x)=a} in the order s

where 1 n, the class of sets s_{1},…,s_{p} is a decomposition of {1,2,..,n} of the kind described above, and a_{1},a_{2},…,a_{p} are any distinct integers lying between 1 and n. The expression s1,..,sp will always mean a decomposition of {1,2,..,n} into nonvoid, disjoint subsets with s*_{1}<s*_{2}<…< s* _{ p}. The letters t and w will be used similarly. Also a_{1},a_{2},...,a_{p} will always mean any ordered sequence of
distinct integers from 1 to n; the letters c and d will be used similarly.

For p = 1,2,…,n, let _{p} be the set of all elements of _{N} whose range contains just p elements, that is,

for a fixed p. Strictly speaking, _{N} depends upon n as well as p. However, only one value of n will be treated at one time. The set _{N} is obviously the symmetric group S_{n}. The set _{p } 1 is a semigroup with the trivial multiplication fg=f. No other _{p} is a subsemigroup of _{p}. It will be convenient to have the semigroup _{p} U{z}, with multiplication defined by

Using a linear algebraic result, we have the following formula regarding the rank of a linear representation of *T _{n}* .

**THEOREM 5.1**

Let M be an irreducible linear representation of *T _{n}* , and let S={f: f

**Proof**

Suppose the irreducible linear representation M: *T _{n}* → L(

Since,

where F is a field of characteristic 0.

Since,

and,

We have

Therefore,

This completes the proof.

Let X={x_{1},x_{2},…,x_{n}} be a set of cardinality n and let S_{n} denote the set of all single-valued maps of X to itself. We have the following
characterization of a map from S_{n} into the set of all n*n matrices D_{n} over the field F, see also.

**THEOREM 5.2**

Let M:S_{n} →D_{n} be a map defined by M(f) = A_{f } D_{n}, for f S_{n}. Then, M forms a homomorphism of S_{n} into D_{n}. If, in particular, S_{n} is a semigroup S, then M becomes a representation of S ∪{z}
into D_{n} (where z is a zero element).

**Proof**

For any two single valued maps f and g in S_{n}, the product fg is also a single valued map, therefore fg S_{n}.

Moreover, since In particular, if i is the identity map on X, then then we have;

Therefore, M defines a homomorphism of S_{n} into D_{n}.

If, in particular, if the semigroup of all maps from X into itself, then we can define an induced structure on the adjoined zero semigroup *T _{n}* , where z is a zero element, i.e., for any f

The induced structure on is defined as follows:

Then, the homomorphism M can be extended into a map of the semigroup is defined by

Therefore,

And

Thus, becomes a representation on S.

**Representation of a semigroup of linear transformations in green’s**

**Relations**

Two things that can be associated with an element α are as follows:

1. the range Xα of α, and

2. the partition if xα=yα which defines an equivalence relation on X.

Let be the natural mapping of X upon the set of equivalence classes of X mod Then, becomes a one-to-one mapping of upon Xα. It follows that , and this cardinal number is called the rank of α.

**Remark**

The Ex.2.2.6 in [4] can be rewritten as follows,

Let F be a field and V be a vector space over F. By the dimension dimV of we mean the cardinal number of a basis of V over F. Let (V ) be the multiplicative semigroup (i.e., under the operation of composition of maps) of all linear transformations of V with each element t of L(V) we associate two subspaces of V that are given as follows:

1. the range , consisting of all (x) τ with x V and,

2. the null space N^{τ} of ^{τ} , consisting of all y in V such that (y)^{τ} = 0.

(a) Let , and W be a subspace of V, complementary to the null space N_{τ} , so that V = τ

Then, τ induces a non-singular matrix A.

Hence, dim(V=N^{τ} )=dim(W)=dim(V_{t}); is called rank of t. The difference or quotient space of V modulo N^{τ} is denoted by V-N^{τ} or by V/N (*T _{v}*) . If dimV is finite, this notation of rank is the usual one as for the matrix A, since VA is the row-space of A. Also N

(b) Two elements of the space equivalent if and only if they have the same range (null-space). (c) If N and W are subspaces of V such that dim(V/N^{τ} )=dimW, then there exists at least one element ρ of 1τ such that
N = Nρ and W =Vρ.

(d) Two elements equivalent if and only if rank

(e) The Th. 2.9 holds for (v) instead of *T _{X}* if we replace “subset Y of X” by “the subspace W of V”,

**Linear representation of a full transformation semigroup over a finite field**

**Definition**

Let V be a vector space over the field F(=C) the complex numbers and let the finite subset of V be a basis for V, i.e.,
dimV=n, let Tv denote the full transformation semigroup over V. The space (*T _{v}*) denotes the space of all linear transformations
on V. If a is in (

where a can be identified as a morphism which is equivalent to saying that det(a)=det(a_{ij}) ≠ 0. The linear space (*T _{s}*) of
full transformation semigroup can be identified with the semigroup of all transformations of degree n.

A representation ф : S → (*T _{s}*) is faithfull if and only if ф is one-to-one homomorphism. A representation ф of a semigroup
S, of degree n over the field F, we mean a homomorphism of S into the semigroup (

We denote the algebra of all linear transformations over the n-dimensional vector space Fn over the field F by . Obviously, appears as a subspace of

If ф is an isomorphism of S upon a subsemigroup of ; then ф is said to be faithfull. We shall determine all the representations
of various classes of finite semigroups over a finite field Fq. If S is a finite semigroup, then there is a one-to-one correspondence
between a representation of S and that of algebra over the finite field Fq. Of course, this correspondence
preserves the reducation, decomposition and hence the full reducibility hold for such representations of S if and only if is semisimple that holds if q does not divide the dimF^{n}_{q}=n, (the dimension of the vector space F^{n}q over a finite field F_{q}. There is
a necessary and sufficient condition on a finite semigroup S in order that F_{q}[S] is semisimple. An explicit representation of such
group is obtained in. They constructed all the irreducible representations of S from those of its principal factors of the full transformation
semigroup on a finite set.

If F is algebraically closed, then there are no division algebras over F other than F itself, and in this case Wedderbun’s second theorem tells us that every simple algebra ∧ over F is isomorphic with the full transformation semigroup algebra ∧ of degree n for some positive integer n.

Any isomorphism of ∧ upon semigroup ∧ is a representation of ∧ , and gives the irreducible representation of ∧ . Let ∧
be an algebra of order n over F, and let ф be a representation of of degree r over F, and let m be a positive integer. For each
element ф^{(m)} of , construct a transformation

such that

if

then

The map ф^{(m)} is called the representation of L(Lm) associated with the representation ф of ∧ . The following lemma is due to
Van der Waerden’s modern algebra.

**Lemma**

Let D be division algebra, and let m be a positive integer. The right regular representation ρ of D is an irreducible, and the
only irreducible representation of the simple algebra (D^{m} ) is just the representation ρ(m) of (*D ^{m}*) associated with ρ.

**THEOREM 7.3**

Let ∧ σ (σ=1,…,c) be the simple components of a semisimple algebra ∧ . By Wedderburn’s second theorem, each σ may
be regarded as a full transformation of some degree m_{σ} over the division algebra (∧σ ) . Let ρ_{σ }be the regular representation
of Dσ and ρσ^{(mσ)} be the representation of (∧σ ) associated with ρσ then ρσ^{(mσ)} is the only irreducible representation
of ρσ. Extending (ρσ)^{(mσ)} be the representation of (∧σ ) s sociated with ρσ then ρσ(mσ) is the only irreducible representation of ρσ. Extending (ρσ)^{(mσ)} to by defining ф_{σ}(a) = (ρσ)^{(mσ)}(a) if is the unique expression of the element a of ∧ as a sum of
elements ar of the∧_{r}. Then {ф_{1} ,…,ф_{c}} is the complete set of inequivalent irreducible representations of D_{σ} . If dσ is the order of *D _{σ}* , then the degree of ф

**THEOREM 7.4**

Let τ be a linear operator on ∧ with an algebra ∧ of finite order over a field F.

If n > m, then there exists a non-zero linear transformation σ: ∧^{n} →∧^{m} such that τ _{σ} = 0. There exists a non-null transformation
γ : ∧^{n} →∧^{m} (over ^{γτ} ) such that γτ = 0, for every m > n.

**Proof**

Let n > m and with τ_{2} an operator on τ_{2} and τ_{2} a linear transformation from ∧n−m into ∧n−m (over τ_{1} ). Suppose that τ_{1} is left divisor of zero in (∧^{m}) . then there exists such that τ_{1} σ_{1} = 0. We may take σ=(σ1,0). Hence we may
assume that τ_{1} is not left divisor of zero in (∧^{m}). By Lemma 5.8, that can be applied to the algebra (∧^{m}) ), we have that the algebra τ_{1} contains a left identity element i with respect to which τ_{1} has a two-sided inverse ρ_{1} in τ_{1} We may
take where σ_{2} is any non-singular linear transformation from ∧^{m} into ∧^{m} over the algebra ∧ .

Then,

since and i is the identity element in (∧^{m}).

One can similarly prove that, if m > n, then there exists a non-null transformation

**Representation of a full transformation semigroup over a finite field**

Let θ be a root of some irreducible polynomial of degree m over a finite field Fq(or the Galois field GF(q)), then the set {1, θ,θ^{2}….,θ^{m-1}} becomes a basis for the vector space F^{m}_{q} over F_{q} and is called a polynomial basis for F^{m}_{q}. The dimension of the vector space F^{m}_{q} over F_{q} is m. Let such that the set

form a basis for So that a be represented by the vector (a_{0},a_{1},a_{2},…,a_{m-1}) and
let αq be represented by the shifted vector (a_{m-1},a_{0},a_{1},…,a_{m-2}). The normal basis exists for any extension field of F_{q}.

Consider the vector space V = F_{q}^{m} over F_{q} (where q is a prime), and let = {θ,θ^{q}, θ^{q} ….,θ^{qm-1}} be a basis for V. Let TB
be the full transformation semigroup upon the basis B. Then T_{} =m^{m}.

Since is an element of V =Fqm as described above. Then the element can be defined by then , where

i.e.,

It is obvious to say that . S is a full transformation semigroup over V* with a dual basis of V* then there exists a mapping which becomes an isomorphism.

Since is a finite full transformation semigroup on the basis B of V over the finite field F_{q}. Therefore F_{q} [] becomes
an algebra of over F_{q}. Then, there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between the representation of TB over Fq and
those of which preserves equivalence, reduction and decomposition into irreducible constituents.

Thus the representations of over F_{q} is transferred to the algebra If is semisimple, then by the main representation theorem[4] holds for semisimple algebra Every representation of and hence every
representation of TB is full reducible into irreducible one.

Let F_{q} be a finite field, and B be a basis for F^{m}_{q} , where (m,q) = 1. (i.e., m,q are relatively prime).

Then, we have the following interpretation of the Maschke’s theorem regarding the algebra over the finite field F_{q}.

**THEOREM 8.1**

Let Let S = be a finite full transformation semigroup over basis of of order mm.

Then, the semigroup algebra over F_{q} is semisimple if and only if the characteristic q of F_{q} does not divides the
order mm of the full transformation semigroup ∧.

Let ∧ be an algebra of order r over the vector space V = F_{q}^{ m}, and let n be another positive integer different from m. Denote
by ∧ the full matrix algebra of all nn matrices over ∧ , with the additions and multiplication of matrices, and of the multiplication
of matrix by a scalar in Fqm. Then, the algebra ∧ is of order rn^{2} over F_{q}^{ m}. In particular, (F^{q}m)_{n} will denote the full matrix
algebra of degree n over Fqm.

An algebra L over a field F is called division algebra if ∧ /0is a group under multiplication. A result regarding the existence
of an isomorphism between a full matrix algebra and the space of all the linear transformations over the vector space F_{q}^{m} , is as
follows.

**THEOREM 8.2**

Let F_{q}^{m} be a vector space over a finite field F_{q}. Then, there is an isomorphism from the space of full matrix algebra (F_{q})_{m} to the
space of all the linear transformations on F_{q}^{m}.

**Proof**

The set of all m−dimensional vector space (1m matrices) over F_{q} is an m−dimensional vector space F_{q}^{m} over F_{q} . The natural
basis of F_{q}^{m} consists of the m vectors v_{1} = θ, v_{2} = θ^{q}, v_{3} =θ^{q2} ,…,vm = θ^{qm-1}, where vi has the identity element 1 of Fq for its ith component,
and has 0 for the remaining components.

If A (F_{q})_{m}, then the transformation t : is a linear transformation t of F_{q}^{m} into itself and the
mapping is an isomorphism of upon the algebra of all linear transformations of Fqm into itself. The ith row of A is the vector

Conversely, if F_{q}^{m} is any m−dimensional vector space, and we choose a basis {v_{1},v_{2},…,v_{m}} of F_{q}^{m}, then each linear transformation
t of F_{q}^{m} determines a matrix A = (α_{ij}) from the expression.

for the m vectors as linear combination of the basis vectors. Then, the mapping becomes an isomorphism of

A combinatorial result about the rank of a representation of the full transformation semigroup is obtained. It seems that for
any homomorphism between the set of single-valued maps and the set of all nn matrices over a field F becomes a representation
when the set of single valued maps is replaced by a full transformation semigroup adjoined with a zero element z. There is
a one-one correspondence between the set of all representations of some finite semigroup S and those of the algebra of a full
transformation semigroup over a finite dimensional vector space over a finite field. Consequently, we observed an isomorphism
between the full matrix algebra (F_{q})^{m} and the set of all linear transformations on F_{q}^{m} is obtained.

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