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Theories of identity and its inclusiveness in building diversity democracy

Meseret Bekele*

Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author:
Meseret Bekele
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
[email protected], [email protected]

Received date: August 14, 2020; Accepted date: August 28, 2020; Published date: September 4, 2020

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 Till recently identity theories to use as a guiding principle to fully realize the protection and safeguarding of diversity and diverse identities that exist among heterogeneous communities across the globe have not been exist. On such issue of consideration, different theories of identity are developed for the purpose of fully realization of all round respect and protection of the right of diverse communities with taking into account the norm and identity belongs to all. With this aim, the following theories of identity are developed and well discussed in this paper. These include Socio-Cultural Relativism (Sociorelativism), Socio-Politicorelativism (Politicorelativism), Socio-Econorelativism (Econorelativism) as well as Social Abstainism (Abstainism). With this regard, these theories are mainly used in building diversity democracy in appropriate way.


DIdentity theory is obliged in diversity democracy to fully include any social norms, moral values including any indigenous aspects belongs to certain community into politicoeconomic governance and administrative system. As consideration taken in various works, theories of identity and its relating issue of diversity to manage justice and fair utilization of resources as well as participation in politicoeconomic issues for the benefit of diverse having communities still lacking. Likewise, in the area of diversity democracy as well as identity issue as a fundamental assumption to govern the work of politicoeconomic to handle diversity and for the sake the total protection of any kind of diversity as theories of identity is obliged. As to such issue is concerned, the material produced by [1] Center for Ethics entitled “Diversity, Justice and Democracy” states about the existence of restrain or limitation of fundamental theory to govern and guide the work towards the realization all diversity recognition, respect and protection in equal manner without any domination by one or few. The domination by one or few to mean that the rest of diversity and diverse elements whether by stating a certain diverse identity as an official among others without any criteria of inclusion and exclusion ignoring the rest as if designing and accomplishments assimilation at state level still exist. Specially what is propagated among several regimes that undemocratically handling the governance of several countries as economic growth priority giving over human and democratic right as well as priority advocating for party politics over identity politics mentioning simply as a propaganda to systematically damage those targeted diversity and diverse identity as if managing such likely possible whether the case of party politics or identity mentioning political governance for the political authority of any country if positive attitude towards all diversity and diverse identity protection, recognition to work for all to benefit all as if exist and becomes the aim of the national implementation.

As to such also the propaganda of party politics over identity politics as well economic growth over human right or democratic right consideration for all as if purposively stating at international level to get support and recognition from international community in relation to the identity based human and democratic right violation by regimes handling the governance of many countries. But, on the ground the politics of few has been built by few groups of political elites that handle the governance of the state. This has seen in many countries. As stated within the aforementioned materials released by [1] Center for Ethics as the question that state the lack of fundamental theory of identity as such also leads to the line of attack on diversity and diverse identity as follows:

“what ideal should govern our understanding of what counts as just social relations in contexts of demographic diversity? Over the course of the 20th century, candidates have included: “social cohesion,” “assimilation,” “integration” and “multiculturalism.” Each of these has come under critical attack. None currently provides a broadly accepted point of orientation. What theories of identity and of the human need for recognition should we defend? How do we incorporate those theories in our accounts of justice? How do we need to revise our theories of justice, or core social ideals, if we are to do better at achieving fair and just forms of democratic life in conditions of significant demographic diversity? Can we develop concepts that are applicable both in societies with a small number of social groups and those with a multitude of categories in a muddled hierarchy? In other words, can our concepts be independent of our many contexts and yet be useful in charting directions toward fair and just democracies?”

As has been indicated here above, the material tried to relate the issue of inequality confronted diverse global communities due to lack of appropriate theory of identity. To defend what the diverse global communities largely confronted as well as building democratic state and community across the globe based on the issue of “non domination” theorizing identity politics of diversity in the way diversity democracy could be well implemented as if must consideration taken. As such this paper exclusively come up with at least three theories of identity to be used in the stated diversity democracy as to such to combat domination and social hierarchy or social class building in political and economic as well as social context of any country across the globe. On this issue, such study of theory development has targeted to be used in diversity democracy to fill the confronted gap as such gap also still un researchable and respective theory or perspective could not be developed yet.

Based on aforementioned attack on diversity and diverse identity the core ideal to confront the hierarchy building in politics, economic and social context of domination developing the stated theories has been mandatory. Based on this, the manuscript developed with the following aim i) to come up with identity theory ii) to highlight diversity democracy in to communal owned identity as well as individual based right protection iii) to discuss the developed theories of identity. For the purpose, issues of identity theories area well highlighted as follows.


An overview on the study of theories of identity

Theories of identity come to being with the aim of defending the diversity and diverse identity of any kind across the globe. That is to mean mentioning such theories as an appropriate argument to protect the hampering and damaging of any diversity and diverse identity as an international level as such theory of argument still lacking. With such assumption the following theories of identity are developed. Those theories include Socio-Cultural relativism (Sociorelativism), Socio-Politicorelativism (Politicorelativism), Socio-Econorelativism (Econorelativism) as well Social abstainism (Abstainism). For the sake of simplicity utilization, those names used for the school of thoughts of cultural relativism likely possible alternatively or independently for the first three theories of identity. In other instances, the names of those schools of thoughts of cultural relativism indicatively as Sociorelativism, Politicorelativism and Econorelativism where inclusively possible to demonstrate to take into account the aforementioned diversity and diverse identity issues in the area of social, political as well economic issues of mentioning possibly.

As the fundamental assumption of theories of identity, the core ideal could not only target aggregate diverse identities exist among any community but also the consideration and reconsideration of the protection and safeguarding of the rights of any kind of all members of the community including at family or individual level. For the case, all the reality exist and socially constructed elements among any communities must consideration taken. The developed theories of identity have been must be consideration taken and used in politics as well as within the advocacy of the respect of all kinds of right issues whether the case of advocacy and campaign engagement on human rights as well as democratic right in relation to diversity of any kind as an identity exist among any communities. Identity means all reality exist among the respective communities taking into consideration. As to such, the theories of identity inclusively discussed in this part as the main target of this discussion section of the theory building of the manuscript:

Socio-cultural relativism (Sociorelativism)

This theory of identity taking into consider the social issues and social realities including norms, cultures, language as well as other socially constructed among the certain communities. Regarding this, socially constructed means that totally what the community mutually established, promoted and handed to generation-to-generation for long since ancient time or mythical time. According to the fundamental assumption of this theory, hampering and any attempt to destruct such social norms and moral values has been usually regarded as imperiling and jeopardizing the livelihood of the respective community not only at the aggregate but also up to the family and individual level of hampering the right of the targeted groups of community. So therefore, this must be banned at international level as the case lead to the violation of human and democratic rights that resulted inability to lead livelihood in harmony of all members of the community with each other as well with other diverse communities nearby to them and so on. If not outlawed, the case would totally or partially destruct or hamper the communal as well as the individual right of the targeted community members of diverse identity having directly or indirectly. Diverse elements of any kind should be considered as the ethical norms and guiding principle as the customary issue as well as in modernity sense in that the way every member of the community should lead their livelihoods within the community. The case also considered as showing and guiding all members on the right way as well as guiding all members to be abstains from doing what the community at an aggregate regarded as unethical and out of norm. As to such sometimes, right based theories of identity issueing probably hampers a certain right of some members of the community with having side effect as well as resulted some obstacles to certain positive impacting elements. In this case, such side effect practices that negatively affected as if could be possibly changed with long-term education to eradicate and with certain right based modification as if education is mandatorily seen as a means that resulted all advantage bearing for the community itself. However, if not taking consider the long-term awareness creation through education the case might lead to hampering extra identity as well leading to violation of rights.

As to such if not taking into consider as the norm and identity of the respective community usually in political situation of the country, usually building of the nation in modern sense of based on the principle and philosophy of democratic way through inclusive way of all diverse having identities as well as to respect, accept as the guiding principle to realize the ideals of the respect and protection of diversity and diverse identity in diversity democracy and other aspect as if under question mark. Specially the indigenous ways of administrative and customary as if using such as an elements of theories of in the modern sense of political governance either as complementary or at least at supplementary means of governance and administrative issue as if must be consideration taken. Besides, as a core ideal of Socio-Econorelativism as another branch of identity along side with Socio-Cultural relativism, consideration taken in country’s economic policy similarity to the political case of implementation as if possible obliged. All diverse mode of production and the way sustenance issue taking place including the way food stuff is alongside with food itself is preparation taking place must be taking into account as an identity to be protected as an extra identity. This is also taking place based on the moral values exist within those communities that indigenously practicing the mentioned economic activities. As to such issue is considered, all indigenous elements must be consideration taken as the realities belongs to the respective communities indigenously practicing those elements as their respectful identity. Regarding this, hampering any of them means hampering the identity of the respective community as the issue directly related to damaging what the community at large has as the reality belongs to them.

Based on this theories of identity, it is possible to taking into consideration the issue of fair utilization of resources that exist across the globe by respecting each other’s diverse identity as such also related to justice, fair utilization of economic aspect that create opportunity for inclusive participation within the politics of the respective country that directly or indirectly makes or open fair opportunity to decide on once own affair with the community taking into consideration.

Socio-Politicorelativism (Politicorelativism)

The issue of theory of identity of Socio-Politicorelativism inclusively working for the inclusion any indigenous diversity issue to consideration taken, to be recognized as well as protecting and safeguarding the diverse elements of identity of any kind whether the elements of consideration taken as Socio-Cultural Relativism as well as Socio-Economic Relativism. The assumption also usually embraces the inclusion and participation of the local indigenous community in political aspect of the country to make decide on their own affair regardless of any diversity. Deciding on own affair issue must taking into account all the identity and the reality on the ground among the community as inclusive participation and governance taking issue from the local level to the country’s political engagement has been obliged as a means to devaluate power to the local level to make the community at large the ownership of the decision and implementation followed the decision. This aimed at taking place those decisions and the implementation following such in a fair manner at working for all to mean would open an opportunity to create positivity among all diverse identities and realities having communities within any settlement area or within their country. With this regard, theorizing identity politics and diversity democracy is obliged to fully protect the exiting diversity among the known communities across the globe as usually the case related to protecting the reality belongs to those community as well as the case directly related with the issue of human and democratic right as the reality and indigenous diversity and diverse identity inclusion in political institution of governance and administration to respect what the community own.

In this regard, the government of any country should respect all social and other indigenous practices and inclusion within to be enacted laws, formulation of policy and other national issues must be obliged. Alongside with the international community in collaboration with national governments should work towards the recognition of all diverse identities beyond the existence of paper as making it applicable among all members of the United Nations as if consideration taken must. And also among elements to be considered as a member of united Nations as well as other international and regional organization for any consideration taken nations and the regime handling the countries’ governance. Based on this building democratic country as well as taking into the way governance and administration taking place in a democratic as if among the consideration taken in diversity democracy. As to such diversity handling is the way the nations should govern and work for their country from the side of the regime handling the power any country as must be issued in diversity democracy as if acknowledgement acquiring and bearing for the national government of any county after democratic election as well as by appropriate means of assuming power as if diversity issue should be among as well as if not taking into account the issue diversity and diverse identity making toppling from the power must other appropriate method to correct the politics of the country in regard to the respect of right issue including diversity. Few group based political and economic empire building must be banned and outlawed in a legal means as to the international level as if obliged.

According to this theory, stating certain issue of diversity to systematically hampering and damaging other diversity and diverse identity as well as existed norm of elements among any community never be allowed and check and balance must taking consideration taken by international organizations such as United Nations as its members doing and undoing must be evaluated in a internationally set legal means or lawfully. For instance mentioning economic growth over other right issue as the state policy and targeting to violate human and democratic right of the citizens including targeting total damage of identity whether the case of language or ethnicity such China and other Asian countries based on Asian value declaration must be prohibited and outlawed at an international level by international community. Those and similar actions should also be must be consideration taken up to outlaw the national country as usually taking consider also beyond the Asian countries mainly by African countries and Eastern some European countries doing against the diverse identity and human right as well as democratic right principles of implementation. Especially for some African countries coping internal policies of those Asian countries as the ideology to lead their respective country by those political elites handling political power without consideration taken the reality and diverse norms and identity issues in their respective countries. Specially several African countries have knocked by the latter agenda of copying several internal policies of the Asian countries recently and used as the ideology of the country to lead their respective country inappropriate way as if handling diversity as if targeted to be damaged if such issue is mentioned by appropriate personnel’s as the national policy drawback. As to such this has been common among African countries at least since the Asian values declaration issued.

With this regard, using theories of identity as an aggregate guideline for the internal and external affair issue of policy making by taking into consideration the reality on the ground among the respective countries’ national government or the regime handling power or to handle the governance as an opposition party and party leading the country or their leaders too. In this regard, direct copying the internal policy of the Asian countries inappropriately simply for political propaganda to mention the foreign affair issue even for very short period of time basically changed year based or below time period as the guideline of ideology basically not exist as the national base of appropriately to utilize as the guideline on paper socially democracy mentioned but on meeting and other specially in various national language media broadcast revolutionary is mentioned in Ethiopia. This issue negatively impacted the national development as well as the livelihood of all diverse identity having Ethiopians as if as community as well as individual level for long. It is for such drawback of domination issued policy that theorizing the identity for the purpose utilization in governance and national administration to has have a core values in diversity democracy to defend attack on human need as if consideration and reconsideration is must lawfully.

Socio-Economic relativism (Econorelativism)

This related to the consideration and reconsideration of any indigenous ways of economic engagement among a certain community to include it into the politicoeconomic policy of the country by considering as the identity of the respective community that to be respected without discrimination to be included in the national economic policy and other aggregate plan leading to fair development. With this, displacing from indigenous settlement area by means of economic engagement and national economic and political plan of systematic dislocation from the resourceful areas that the community indigenously residing. Natural resource and other economic engagement must be consideration taken in the national plan as an aggregate as well as as elements of the indigenous economic consideration that belongs to certain community of the country.

Economic engagement on the settlement areas of the stated indigenous community as if also consideration taken is modernizing such economic engagement and output producing means necessary including modernization of mechanizing and industrial expansion those indigenous community should be taking consider as to advantage bearing as if taking to industry of what they produced indigenously as an identity with adding value without manipulating both the economic engagement and the advantage it bears to the indigenously practicing such on such economic activities. Dislocated and displaced as if not allowed. But making them advantageous for what belongs to them as if must be consideration taken as their identity based right respecting.

Economic engagement, mode of production sustaining such all by modernizing the mentioned economic context with manipulation and engaging or replacing it with others identity similar or differ but making it modernizing, mechanizing, industrializing, using such for the input of industry but norming their including consideration taken of advantaging or benefiting including from their resources they usually producing or having or producing advantage bearing from the resources from their native settlement area including the issue of modern case mining ore or fuel based natural resources mining and also environmental degradation of their settlement area as the economic activities more modernized never hamper their livelihood as if must consideration taken.

Resource handling and landholding issue also consideration taken as appropriately based on the principle of to not appropriately ignoring the resource taking over from the formerly residing around the resource area and landholding system as if industrial establishment as well as other economic engagement usually taking consideration as if obliged.


This usually related to the issue consideration a lot as propaganda to talk for or against the issue of identity of any kind inappropriate way. As to such more media based supportive argument as well as against propagating both negatively affected the diverse identity issue as the case of misinterpretation among various diversity and diverse identity as if usually encountered and misquoting might be happened.

Summary and Conclusion

The work come up with new innovative theories of identity at about four that purposively indicating at usually on various materials as the constraints to handle diversity in a respective manner as well the recognition and safeguarding in relation political aspect of the case directly related to the hampering and violation communal as well as individual rights. As to such issue is consideration taken more than four as if developed but the major four are included in this materials and manuscripts. Such issue of diversity usually to be used in diversity democracy that might at the global level to be used as the global based ideology to manage diversity and diverse identity in appropriate manner with the case related to recognition ,respect and protection of all diverse identity as if political governance and administrative issue should be followed as the case to diversity democracy of the case related to human and democratic right as if also justice and fair treatment alongside with such theories identity might possibly suitable and to be used as an argument to mention such diversify and diverse identity recognition, protection, safeguarding at an international level for any concerned body.