Department of Education, San Jose City National High School, San Jose City, California, USA
Received Date: 12/01/2021; Accepted Date: 26/01/2021; Published Date: 02/02/2021
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This study was conducted to determine how the trainings on content help improve the pedagogical approaches in teaching of the SHS teachers of San Jose City National High School, how do Senior High School Teachers of San Jose City National High School select instructional materials and strategies in their teaching based on the knowledge achieved on their trainings on content. This research would like also to determine the implications of the training on content to the pedagogical approaches in teaching of the SHS teachers of SJCNHS. This further would like to find the relationship between the teachers training to their pedagogical approaches in teaching and with their level of performance of the 23 teacher - respondents teaching during the school year 2017 – 2018. The data were gathered through the use of questionnaires developed by the researcher aligned with the DepEd standards which included the training on contents and their implications to teachings.
Results revealed that the areas of specialization were confined only to English, Mathematics, Physical, Biological and Social Sciences, Technical Vocational, Management, and Home economics. There are no teachers available to other major subjects with the same area of specialization like Filipino, Physical Education and others. All of the teacher – respondents have attended the Regional trainings on Common topics and Subject Content. There are only 13 who have other trainings aside from the RTOT and MTOT.
Teachers very much agreed that they have gained improvements in their teaching especially in the aspect of pedagogy after attending the seminar/ trainings on content. They are also very much ready at all times in selecting and using strategies as well making self made instructional materials in their teaching and instruction. It was concluded that the trainings on content improved the pedagogical approaches/ strategies of the teachers. The teacher – respondents agreed that because of the trainings they had, they become ready at all times in selecting and using different instructional materials appropriate to their lessons. It was also observed that the teacher – respondents after they have attended the training on content, improved their self – confidence; awareness on how to teach in a right way; was able to received different viewpoints in teaching; fostered creativity, reasoning and problem solving skills in my class; made the learners work together in discovering new ideas; made learners benefited from the new lesson; deeper understanding of the subject leading to higher order thinking skills; engaged learners to work and be productive; motivated learners through applications in real life situations and improved ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with the local and global community.
It was also found out that there was a very high significant relationship between the teachers’ training and their pedagogical approaches. There was a significant relationship between teachers’ training and their performance. There was a very high significant relationship between the teachers’ pedagogical approaches to their teaching performance. Therefore it was highly recommended that the administration should see to it that proper and timely distribution of learning materials should be observed. There is also a need to support teachers’ need when it comes to the materials they need in preparing their IMs.
Senior High School, Curriculum Content, Pedagogical Approached
The expertise in one’s own discipline or area of specialization has been the most respected feature of a subject teacher. In recent years, there have been discussions about the need to improve teacher’s pedagogical thinking and skills as well. While there is extensive literature on teacher quality, teacher education and training, most of it focuses on emphasizing the extent of the problem, their importance, how they might be developed or delivered. A few others mention programs that have been conducted in various countries. There is very little literature that focuses specifically on the impacts of teacher training on student’s learning outcomes that are measurable. Most of the studies that have looked at impacts of teacher training are on developed countries and many not be relevant as the conditions in others are so different . In terms of impact evaluations, teacher quality has been examined either through measurable teacher characteristics or through a ‘fixed teacher effect’. The literature seems to be mixed in terms of whether it has impact/implication on student achievement, though the dominant view seems to be that measurable teacher characteristics such as academic achievement, professional achievement and training do not seem to have any effect on student achievement. It was in this regard that this research was conducted. In addition, this served also as a follow up research survey on the previous research conducted by the researcher as per recommended in the result of the previous study.
This study examined the implication of teachers’ training on content on their pedagogical approaches in teaching. It involved the group of 23 teachers in the same senior high school during the first semester of the school year 2017 – 2018. Each of them completed/answered a survey questionnaire about the teachers’ own experiences, their pedagogy, and their understanding on the preparation and development of Instructional Materials as a result and outcome of their academic training.
The researcher classified the teachers’ materials selection, development and how these materials were used in their instruction. Although the teachers planned together (by strand and by subject area), their rationales for their evaluation, selection, and implementation of materials varied. The researcher attributed the teachers’ decisions to number of contextual and teacher factors, including their knowledge gained in their trainings about the teaching and learning of their learners. More important than a particular textbook choice was how the teachers selected and implemented the materials to support the goals of the curriculum. The results of the study indicated that teacher educators must help learners to gain knowledge of curriculum standards and how they can improve their performance and achievements.
The traditional curriculum focused on the teacher rather than the learner. However, in recent years, there has been a paradigm shift taking place, moving the emphasis from teaching to learning; a more student - centered curriculum. This change has impacted on the curriculum design process with a greater emphasis on the learning in terms of knowledge, skills and competencies within intervention/ learning materials. The focus is on how learners learn and the design of effective learning environment. There are fewer studies of teacher quality in developing countries, but those available confirm that differences in teacher
There are fewer studies of teacher quality in developing countries, but those available confirm that differences in teacher quality can significantly impact student achievement. One such study found that in Peru, teachers with high achievement in math increased student achievement on standardized math tests by about 9 percent of a standard deviation .
While there may be a number of different ways to improve the quality of teaching for rural students (for example, improving incentives for teachers policymakers in developing countries have placed great stock in teacher professional development (PD) . In theory, PD programs seek to help teachers gain subject - specific knowledge, use appropriate pedagogical practices, develop positive attitudes towards teaching and ultimately improve the learning of students .
This is very helpful as it emphasizes that a teaching strategy professional development is fundamentally about supporting student’s learning. In giving consideration to how, as academics, one can teach in order to ensure that students are engaging with the learning process, it is necessary to focus on the type of teaching strategies and the knowledge on content one can employ to achieve this end. For the purpose of this study, instructional materials refer to resources available to, and used by, a teacher for instructional purposes. This definition includes materials describing the intended curriculum: what the teacher is expected to teach and the resources provided to achieve that goal. Instructional materials also refer to resources obtained online, supplemental textbooks and activity books, and materials provided by colleagues or from other sources. referred to this process as “the implemented curriculum the ways in which a teacher takes a syllabus or curriculum guidelines or standards and enacts them in the classroom” .
The tasks provided to students may have been created by the teacher based on the content or may originate directly from the instructional materials as a suggested activity; the teacher may have modified the task from its original form; or the teacher may have found and modified a task from a source outside of those provided by the school. In a study of the value-added of teachers in high-poverty and lower-poverty schools in North Carolina and Florida, CALDER researchers find that the solution to the achievement gap attributable to disparities in teacher quality is not as straightforward as we might believe. The evidence confirms that high-poverty schools tend to have less effective teachers as measured by their value-added to math and reading achievement, and that high-poverty schools tend to have greater within-school va riability in the value-added of teachers . From a socio- cultural perspective on basic education, the teacher must consider not only the instructional materials available but also his or her students’ backgrounds, content knowledge, and special needs in implementing a particular curriculum. Regardless of the materials provided by the school, the teacher is the ultimate decision maker and curriculum developer in the classroom . Although teachers implement a curriculum, they use particular materials. The materials they choose to use and how they use those materials to implement the curriculum influence their students’ learning opportunities.
Teacher Training and Learning Outcomes
Understanding what is happening with teachers’ availability, training and quality is one of the most pressing issues facing education today. Over the past decade many countries have been reducing their investments in teacher training and recruiting non-professional teachers both as a cost-cutting measure and as a quick fix solution to the teacher shortage. The full impact of this trend is only now being felt as the teaching profession fragments and learning outcomes deteriorate.
A good quality teacher can guide the learning process of children, making learning relevant and stimulating. She/he can impart knowledge and skills that will help children to secure their educational rights, improve their health and self-esteem, and gain fair employment. A teacher can also be a role model by embracing the principles of social justice and treating all students equally without discrimination, while encouraging each student’s unique strengths. Indeed, a dedicated and well-trained teacher can provide children with the essential skills to critically analyze, challenge and improve the discriminatory attitudes or behavior that may be present at homes, schools and communities. While it is generally agreed that the teachers can shape learning and young lives, there remains considerable debate as to the national and local-level policies and programs that best support teachers. Topics of debate include the level of schooling teachers should have themselves, what length of training they need and what professional development and support they should be able to draw on in order to fulfill these ambitious roles. Each strand of the policy and practice spectrum is complicated, interdependent and determined by contextual factors.
In many countries constrained education budgets coupled with the inconsistent and uncoordinated involvement of various actors in supporting teachers further complicate appropriate policy responses. An alarming trend concerns the low levels of student achievement. Though there is little existing research that directly correlates students’ achievement outcomes with teachers’ training, qualification and contract variations, the fact that teachers are the main staff responsible for supporting pupils’ learning makes a connection between these two factors highly likely.
The Education for All Global Monitoring Report (EFA GMR) finds that, ‘what students achieve in school is heavily influenced by classroom practices and teacher’ skills...One of the most important requirements for sustained progress towards better quality in education is an improved learning environment, encompassing the physical school infrastructure, the learning process and the interaction between children and teachers’. Some literature shows that most studies do not evaluate the relationship between pedagogical knowledge, teachers’ behavior and student learning, but focus on shifts in teaching attitude, rather than on changes in knowledge and skills .
Research also does not link the profile (e.g. how they differ by training levels and academic qualification) of teachers with student outcomes. However, Van de argues against using student test scores as a sole measurement of teacher quality and advocates rather for the use of observation tools to monitor and assess this instead .
This literature review collapses the student outcome literature into teacher quality and parental participation to reflect the fact that, for the most part, improvements in teacher quality or parental participation are designed to improve students’ learning.
Teacher training alone or in combination with other strategies is the most common approach to improving teacher quality in the developing world . However, an ongoing policy challenge is the lack of data on the impact and effectiveness of different training and development models. Based on research included within the review, in order for initial teacher training and ongoing continuing professional development to be effective it must be relevant, timely and context-specific.
Teachers’ motivation is both a contextually and culturally specific factor influencing teacher quality. It interacts with other variables to determine quality related outcomes for teachers, such as work conditions, relationships, expectations and behavior. A number of studies have focused on the range of incentives that can be introduced to improve teachers’ motivation, enhance the quality of teachers and, hopefully, raise students’ performance. A number of studies explore the relationship between teachers’ practices and students’ learning. However, the results of these studies are mixed. According to US educator, . The variables presumed to be indicative of teachers' competence and which are linked to students’ learning include academic ability, years of education, years of teaching experience, measures of subject matter and teaching knowledge, certification status and teaching behaviors in the classroom.
However, each study has different views on what the qualities of a good teacher are and how these could be measured.
Understanding how teachers make sense of the training and the knowledge they gained from it can be best observed when they go back to their respective classrooms. Impact of these training can also be measured in terms of students’ performance. How teachers chose the instructional materials to use with their students, and how they implemented lessons based on different materials could inform those who prepare to be practicing teachers, about ways to better improve their pedagogical approach in teaching.
With these interests in mind, the researcher used the following research questions as a guide to the study:
1. How may the respondents be described in terms of their area of specialization, trainings attended and performance rating (SY: 2016 – 2017)?
2. How the training on content help improve the pedagogical approaches in teaching of the SHS teachers of San Jose City National High School?
3. How do Senior High School Teachers of San Jose City National High School select instructional materials and strategies in their teaching based on the knowledge achieved on their trainings on content?
4. What are the implications of the training on content to the pedagogical approaches in teaching of the SHS teachers of SJCNHS?
5. Is there a significant relationship between the teachers training to their pedagogical approaches in teaching?
6. Is there a significant relationship between the teachers training to their level of performance?
7. Is there a significant relationship between pedagogical approaches to the teachers’ performance?
1. There is no significant relationship between the teachers training to their pedagogical approaches in teaching?
2. There is no significant relationship between the teachers training to their level of performance?
3. There is no significant relationship between the teachers’ pedagogical approaches in teaching and the teachers’ performance.
This chapter provided the theoretical and conceptual framework of the study, operational definition of terms, locale of the study, discussion of the method of research, participants, instruments, procedure of the study, and the statistical techniques used.
In attaining the direction and goals of this study the researcher will use the following theories:
(1) Cognitive Behavioral Theory of Aaron . It describes the role of cognition (knowing) to determining and predicting the behavioral pattern of an individual. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory says that individuals tend to form self-concepts that affect the behavior they display. These concepts can be positive or negative and can be affected by a person’s environment.
Cognitive Behavioral Theory further explains human behavior and learning using the cognitive triad. This triad includes negative thoughts about the self (i.e., I am rubbish), the world/environment (i.e., the world is irrational), and the future (i.e., my future is doomed).
(2) Social Development Theory . which argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior.
Locale of the Study
The setting of the study was at San Jose City National High School Senior High School. It is situated in Cardenas Street corner Cadhit Street in Barangay Calaocan, San Jose City, NuevaEcija.
Type of Research
This study used a descriptive research method. Descriptive research focuses on the qualitative and quantitative assessment of Senior High School teachers’ pedagogical approaches in teaching based on the implications brought about by their training. Furthermore, Correlational research was used to determine the degree of relationship that exists between the Teachers’ training and their teaching performance as well as the relationship between teachers training on content and their pedagogical approaches in teaching.
The participants for this study were all the 23 teachers of the Senior High School of the San Jose City National High School who attended seminar on content and were previously involved in the last research made by the researcher.
Data Collection Procedure
The researcher provided some guided questionnaires. The duration of the research - survey will be from June 2017 up to October 2017.The data were gathered from the respondents’ answers to the survey questionnaires. Data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using appropriate statistical tool.
Permission was secured from the division office to conduct the survey and interview among the respondents of the study. Data gathered were treated with utmost confidentiality.
The study employed both qualitative and quantitative data analyses in determining the implication of the training on content to the pedagogical approaches in teaching of the senior high school teachers and the relationship existing between the dependent and independent variables. These relationships were computed and were analyzed using Pearson r Coefficient Correlation.
The areas of specialization were confined only to English, Mathematics, Physical, Biological and Social Sciences, Technical Vocational, Management, and Home economics. There are no teachers available to other major subjects with the same area of specialization like Filipino, Physical Education and others. All of the teacher respondents have attended the Regional trainings on Common topics and Subject Content. There are only 13 who have other trainings aside from the RTOT and MTOT. Teachers very much agreed that they have gained improvements their teaching especially in the aspect of pedagogy after attending the seminar/trainings on content. They are also very much ready at all times in selecting and using strategies as well making self – made instructional materials in their teaching and instruction.
Based on the results and discussions, the following conclusions have been made:
1. The trainings on content improved the pedagogical approaches/ strategies of the teachers.
2. The teacher – respondents agreed that because of the trainings they have attended they made themselves ready at all times in selecting and using different instructional materials appropriate to their lessons.
3. The following implications have been observed to the teacher – respondents after they have attended the training on content: there is an improved to the teachers’ self – confidence; improved awareness on how it is important to teach in a right way; was able to received different viewpoints in teaching; fostered creativity, reasoning and problem solving skills in my class; made the learners work together in discovering new ideas; made learners benefited from the new lesson; deeper understanding of the subject leading to higher order thinking skills; engaged learners to work and beproductive; motivated learners through applications in real life situations and improved ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with the local and global community.
4. There was a very high significant relationship between the teachers’ training and their pedagogical approaches.
5. There was a significant relationship between teachers’ training and their performance.
6. There was a very high significant relationship between the teachers’ pedagogical approaches to their teaching performance.
Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations were made:
1. Teachers should continuously be sent to different trainings not only those appropriate to their area of specialization but also to the subjects they are handling.
2. The administration should assure that proper and timely distribution of available learning materials should be observed. There is also a need to support teachers need by providing them supplies/materials/equipment they need in the preparation of their IMs. (Markers, crayons, lcd, etc.)
3. Enhancement and updating of pedagogical approaches and strategies must also be given premium concern through connectivity in technology.
4. Benchmarking on the best practices of other teachers and other schools may also be tried for adoption and adaptation or duplication for a more improved instruction and learning