Department of Veterinary Sciences, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Latur, Maharashtra
Received: 01-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. JVS-23-53403; Editor assigned: 05-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. JVS-23- 53403(PQ); Reviewed: 19-Dec- 2022, QC No. JVS-23-53403; Revised: 26-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. JVS-23-53403 (R); Published: 02-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.4172/2581- 3897.6.6.003
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Anesthesia Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, cardiovascular system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement (total hip, knee and elbow replacement), fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, and minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy) are performed by veterinary surgeons (as registered in their jurisdiction). Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgeries such as neuters and minor mass excisions; some also perform additional procedures.
In animals has many similarities to human anesthesia, but some differences as well. Local anesthesia is primarily used for wound closure and removal of small tumors. Lidocaine, mepivacaine, and bupivacaine are the most commonly used local anesthetics used in veterinary medicine.Sedation without general anesthesia is used for more involved procedures. Sedatives commonly used include acepromazine, hydromorphone, midazolam, diazepam, xylazine, and medetomidine. α2 agonists like xylazine and medetomidine are especially useful because they can be reversed, xylazine by yohimbine and medetomidine by atipamezole. Xylazine is approved for use in dogs, cats, horses, deer, and elk in the United States, while medetomidine is only approved for dogs. Most surgeries in ruminants can be performed with regional anesthesia.
AHS General anesthesia is commonly used in animals for major surgery. Animals are often premedicated intravenously or intramuscularly with a sedative, analgesic, and anticholinergic agent (dogs frequently receive buprenorphine and acepromazine). The next step is induction, usually with an intravenous drug. Dogs and cats commonly receive thiopental (no longer allowed in the UK), ketamine with diazepam, tiletamine with zolazepam (usually just in cats), and/or propofol. Alfaxalone is a steroid anaesthetic used in many practices in the UK to induce anaesthesia in cats and sometimes dogs. It is similar in physiological effect but different in composition to the now withdrawn Saffan. Horses commonly receive thiopental and guaifenesin. Following induction, the animal is intubated with an endotracheal tube and maintained on a gas anesthetic. The most common gas anesthetics in use in veterinary medicine are isoflurane, enflurane, and halothane, although desflurane and sevoflurane are becoming more popular due to rapid induction and recovery.
In the United States, Canada and Europe, veterinary surgery is one of 22 veterinary specialties recognized by the American Veterinary Medical Association respectively the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation. Those wishing to become board certified must undergo a one-year clinical internship program followed by three years of intensive training in a residency program under direct supervision of board certified veterinary surgeons, including performance of a large number of surgical procedures in such categories as abdominal surgery, surgical treatment of angular limb deformities, arthroscopic surgery, surgery of the foot, fracture fixation, ophthalmic surgery, urogenital surgery, and upper respiratory surgery, etc. Once the minimum requirements of training are met, residents are required to pass a rigorous certification examination before being admitted as members (diplomates) of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons or European College of Veterinary Surgeons.