Biotechnology Congress 2015: Natural products of Anthracophyllum discolor: Ligninolytic enzymes and antifungal volatile compounds - Heidi Schalchli - Universidad de La Frontera
White-rot fungi play important roles in ecosystems mainly because of their extracellular enzymatic system and their production of chlorinated aromatic compounds that act as decomposers of organic matter, antibiotics for protecting fungi, methyl donors and/or substrates for H2O2-generating oxidases. In this study, we evaluated the production of ligninolytic enzymes and antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. discolor Sp4 using Potato Peels (PP) and Discarded Potato (DP) as nutritional support. The manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) was evaluated by monitoring the oxidation of 2, 6-dimethoxyphenol. Beside the production of MnP, the discoloration of remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) was also determined using a qualitative assay. The antifungal activity of VOCs against Mucor miehei and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated using a bi-compartmented plate assay. Finally, VOCs released from mycelial cultures were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The highest MnP and MiP activities (163 U L-1 and 24 U L-1) were obtained at day 15 of incubation and a complete RBBR discoloration was observed. Although both potato wastes supported the ligninolytic activity, a higher MnP activity was obtained using PP than DP.
The A. discolor volatiles inhibited approximately 62% and 76% the mycelial growth of M. miehei on PP agar and DP agar media, respectively. Nevertheless, the plant pathogen F. oxysporum was slightly inhibited (approximately 10%). The major VOCs detected were chlorinated aromatic compounds (over 50% relative area). The obtained natural products have multiple biotechnological applications among which are pollutant degradation and plant protection. Parasitic unstable auxiliary metabolites assume significant jobs in intervening hostile and gainful associations among life forms. The impacts of eight strains of white-decay organisms refined on potato squander against the mycelial development of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mucor miehei were researched utilizing a bi-compartmented Petri dish examine. The synthetic sythesis of unpredictable natural mixes discharged from the strain with the most noteworthy inhibitory impact was additionally explored by headspace strong stage microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry examination. Of the eight white-decay growths assessed, Anthracophyllum stain. Sp4 demonstrated a high inhibitory action against M. miehei (around 76%) and B. cinerea (roughly 20%). F. oxysporum was restrained to a lesser degree (roughly 10%) by A. stain and T. versiscolor. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry examination indicated nine fundamental unpredictable mixes discharged from A. stain Sp4, among them are the sesquiterpenesα-bisabolene and bulnesene, and the chlorinated sweet-smelling mixes 1,5-dichloro-2,3-dimethoxybenzene, 3,5-dichloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Some of which have been accounted for beforehand with antimicrobial action. The antifungal action and unstable profile of A. stain have not been beforehand reported.Herbicides cause ecological concerns since they are harmful and gather in nature, food items and water supplies. There is a need to create sheltered, effective and practical strategies to expel them from nature, regularly by biodegradation. Atrazine is such herbicide. White-decay parasites can debase herbicides of potential utility. This examination defined a novel pelletized backing to immobilize the white-decay organism Anthracophyllum stain to improve its ability to corrupt the atrazine utilizing a biopurification framework (BS). Various extents of sawdust, starch, corn feast and flaxseed were utilized to create three pelletized underpins (F1, F2 and F3). Moreover, immobilization with covered and uncoated pelletized bolsters (CPS and UPS, individually) was surveyed. UPS-F1 was resolved as the best framework as it gave significant level of manganese peroxidase movement and parasitic practicality. The half-life (t1/2) of atrazine diminished from 14 to 6 days for the control and immunized examples individually. Immunization with immobilized A. stain created an expansion in the contagious taxa evaluated by DGGE and on phenoloxidase movement decided. The treatment improves atrazine debasement and lessens relocation to surface and groundwater.
Atrazine is the most normally utilized herbicide in Chile and maybe on the planet (Mesquini et al. 2015) and it is created by the substance goliath Syngenta as a weed-executioner. It is utilized for corn, sugarcane and sorghum, and decreases broadleaf and verdant weeds during pre-and post-development (Cabrera-Orozco et al. 2016). Notwithstanding, in the European Union, atrazine utilize was restricted in 2004 because of constant in groundwater. Introduction to atrazine can create hermaphroditism in creatures of land and water (Hayes et al. 2002). Also, soil tainting by pesticides, for example, atrazine, during filling of sprayer tanks, can deliver serious natural effects (Castillo et al. 2008; Grigg et al. 1997; Lozier et al. 2012). Pesticides can be corrupted normally by microorganism and white-decay parasites (WRF) are utilized in biotechnological applications to attempt this biodegradation (Morgan et al. 1993; Castillo et al. 2000, 2008). WRF produce extracellular ligninolytic catalysts which corrupt a wide scope of other natural mixes (Rubilar et al. 2012).
The most significant job of WRF is in nature where the life forms reusing dead plant material which would somehow or another amass in the earth making life on earth outlandish. The ligninolytic catalysts from WRF are one of a kind in that they can totally debase lignin to carbon dioxide and water. The ligninolytic chemicals incorporate lignin peroxidases (LiP, EC 126.96.36.199), manganese peroxidases (MnP, EC 188.8.131.52) and laccase (Lcc, EC 184.108.40.206). These catalysts can be incited by lignocellulosic mixes or other natural mixes and their creation is managed by the accessibility of supplements, temperature and inductors or inhibitors (Lorenzo et al. 2002; Rodríguez-Couto and Sanromán 2005; Baldrian 2008). The WRF Anthracophyllum stain produces ligninolytic catalysts and essentially MnP in nearness of contaminations, for example, chlorophenols, as pentachlorophenol (PCP), polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons (PAHs) and engineered colors (Tortella et al. 2008; Elgueta and Diez 2010; Rubilar et al. 2011; Acevedo et al. 2011; Elgueta et al. 2012). The biopurification framework (BS) is a biological and practical innovation to diminish pesticide pollution of soil and water (Castillo and Torstensson 2007). The BS is made out of straw, peat and soil and its proficiency depends on the capacity to hold and debase pesticides by indigenous soil microorganisms. A few reports on the significance of microbial networks engaged with pesticide corruption in BS are accessible (Marinozzi et al. 2013). Studies have depicted the utilization of atomic strategies, for example, denaturing slope gel electrophoresis (DGGE) (Coppola et al. 2012; Marinozzi et al. 2013; Tortella et al. 2013). Coppola et al. (2012) portrayed a change in microbial decent variety after the expansion of pesticides and showed that yeasts and ascomycete filamentous parasites are associated with the pesticides corruption in BS. Tortella et al. (2013) assessed the microbial network structure during atrazine corruption in a BS and watched little effect.
Agrarian and ranger service deposits produced as lignocellulosic squanders increment consistently the ecological contamination. This prompt lost significant common mixes (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) that can be changed over to a few worth included items (Rodríguez-Couto et al. 2001; Sanchez 2009). The biotransformation of lignocellulosic squanders can be ascribed to microorganisms, particularly the WRF, due their extracellular ligninolytic proteins ready to assault and change lignin as well as natural complex particles as toxins (Rao et al. 2014). Most of investigations of atrazine debasement include soil-based frameworks utilizing microscopic organisms (Newcombe and Crowley 1999; Fan and Song 2014; Zhang et al. 2014). Be that as it may, a few examinations utilized WRF and Castillo et al. (2001) indicated that P. chrysosporium in straw societies had the option to corrupt 91% of the herbicide in 14 days of hatching. To exploit this presentation, WRF can be immobilized in lignocellulosic bolsters expanding their capacity to make due within the sight of indigenous soil microorganisms (Pepper et al. 2002). Sawdust has been proposed as an ideal help because of its ability to help parasitic digestion (Walter et al. 2004; Smith et al. 2005). Nonetheless, parasitic immobilization has basic focuses that can influence the practicality of growths to get by in soil. Temperature and mugginess can determinate the accomplishment of soil bioremediation utilizing immobilized growths (Walter et al. 2005; Schmidt et al. 2005; Ford et al. 2007).
Walter et al. (2004) found that wheat straw and a sawdust–cornmeal–starch blend (SCS) was a reasonable bearer for T. versicolor for bioremediation of PCP in soil. Portage et al. (2007) assessed PCP bioremediation by T. versicolor (3–175 g kg−1 inoculum) in profoundly defiled field soils (100–2137 mg kg−1 PCP). They found that bioavailability and extractability of PCP in the defiled soil may altogether expanded after the bioaugmentation. Furthermore, Schmidt et al. (2005) found a solid relationship between's the measure of parasitic inoculum of T. versicolor utilized and contagious colonization in a dirt bioaugmented for bioremediation. Rubilar et al. (2011) depicted the capacity of immobilized A. stain and P. chrysosporium on bolsters with wheat straw for soil bioremediation polluted with PCP. These creators discovered high contagious development rate and MnP creation. The immobilization in wheat grains supported the spread of growths in the dirt and therefore the toxin debasement of over 75%. The fundamental target of the current investigation was to figure a pelletized backing to immobilize A. stain and assess its ability to debase the atrazine utilizing a BS.
Heidi Schalchli, Briceno G and Diez M C
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