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Drinking Water Quality Test of Shambu Town (Ethiopia) from Source to Household Taps Using Some Physico-chemical and Biological Parameters


Drinking water quality deterioration is a big issue in many countries which could be a result of many interconnected biological, physical, and chemical factors. Hence, cross-sectional study was carried out between January to August 2016 to evaluate the quality of Shambu town drinking water using some bacteriological and physicochemical parameters from sources to household tap distribution systems. A total of 117 samples were collected from two water sources (Fincha-Dabsa, and Gora), await well, a reservoir, and 9 household tap for three consecutive seasons. Biological and physicochemical parameters of the water showed highly significant variation (P ≤ 0.01) based on sampling point except for pH, temperature (T) and electric conductivity (EC). Similarly, sampling time (seasons) has also a highly significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on pH, TºC, EC, and TDS; significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) on Mn2+, F, and Cl-. Total coliforms were negatively correlated to the tested chemical parameters except for Fe+2 and total hardness at α=0.05. The number of total coliforms in the water sample ranges from 4-35 CFU/100 ml but no fecal coliforms. pH, T and EC of the water ranges from 7.96-9.63, 7.6-17.6°C, and 80-248 μS/cm, respectively which was to the standard of WHO. Similarly, the maximum concentration (mg/l) of Fe+2, Mn+2, NO-3, SO4 -2, and PO4 -3 was 0.31, 1.24, 38, 3.6, and 0.86, respectively which qualifies the standard set by WHO and national drinking water minimum requirement. However, total dissolved solid and turbidity ranged in 62.73-154 mg/l and 4.23 NTU, respectively which requires further treatment to fit to the minimize national standard. Depending on the tested parameters (at the time), Shambu town drinking water has negligible health risk although continual testing is mandatory including other parameters.

Belay Garoma, Girmaye Kenasa, Mulisa Jida

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