All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Perspective Article Open Access

Keller’s ARCS Model and Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction


Instruction design is the process of developing a curriculum for active learning, which includes the creation and delivery of educational programs. It involves examining learning needs and developing a delivery system that meets those needs. Two of the most common basic models of instructional design are Keller’s ARCS model and Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. These models are used in different environments, from schools to businesses to the military. The ARCS model stipulates four stages of the instructional design process: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction. Keller places more emphasis on the motivational aspects of learning than on how the learning material is delivered. These elements are meant to encourage and sustain the learner’s motivation. Keller also focuses on students’ need for motivation in their learning. To keep students motivated, their teachers need to cultivate positive attitudes in them.

James M McKivigan

To read the full article Download Full Article | Visit Full Article