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Research Article Open Access

The Educational Change Process in Ghana and Nigeria: An Evaluation of the Junior Secondary School Innovation


The decision to undertake this research was a pragmatic response to the debates which followed the introduction of a new secondary system in Ghana and Nigeria and it is intended to investigate the reform during its life cycle in Ghana between 1974 and 1987 and in Nigeria between 1982 and 1985 to see how much foundation there was for the doubts being expressed. The reform was designed as a complex package offering an integrated approach to change educational values, orientation and learning outcomes. The changes subsumed in each aspect of the reform have far-reaching implications for the entire education system. Especially one element, the vocationalised curriculum, caused immediate concern at the time because of the discouraging evidence of similar previous attempts in both Ghana and Nigeria and other countries. Further concern was on the changes in the examination system and the introduction of guidance and counselling.

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